Código PHP - Referencia rápida

Esta página incluye ejemplos de sintaxis básica de PHP y cómo usar FastSitePHP. Se asume que posee algunos conocimientos de programación como por ejemplo, qué es una instrucción [if] o [loop]; sin embargo, no tiene que saber PHP para usarlo.

Los ejemplos están diseñados para que simplemente copie y pegue lo que necesite. Debido a que existen ejemplos para el código PHP estándar, esta página es útil como referencia general de PHP incluso si no está utilizando FastSitePHP.

Mostrando 63 secciones de código de ejemplo

PHP Syntax - Overview

// PHP is similar to the C style syntax so [if] statements, [for] and [while]
// loops, [functions], [comments], and more are also similar to other
// widely used languages such as JavaScript, C#, and Java. If you have
// some JavaScript experience it is very easy to get started with PHP.

// PHP Scripts start with [<?php] and individual lines must end with a
// semicolon [;]. The [echo] statement outputs/prints content on the screen.
// This example if saved as a file simply outputs 'Hello World!'.
echo 'Hello World!';

PHP Syntax - Variables

// In PHP all variables start with a dollar sign character [$] followed by
// the variable name. Variables are created when they are first used and
// not declared ahead of time.
$value = 'Test';

// Variables are dynamically typed in PHP; the data type is determined
// by the value of the variable and the type can be changed.
$value = (10 * 20);
$string = 'String';
$number = 123;
$decimal = 123.456;
$bool = true;
$null = null;

// Arrays can be defined using [] characters like JavaScript and other languages
// when using any recent version of PHP. If using an old version of PHP
// (5.3 or below) Arrays need to be defined using the [array()] function.
$cities = ['Tokyo', 'São Paulo', 'Jakarta', 'Seoul', 'Manila', 'New York City'];

// An extra comma can be included after the last item
$numbers = array(123, 456, 789,);

// PHP Array's is actually an ordered map so they are often used like
// Dictionaries, Hashes, or Associative Arrays from other languages.
$months_days = [
    'January' => 31,
    'February' => 28,
    'March' => 31,
    'April' => 30,

// Objects can be dynamically created in PHP using the built-in [stdClass].
$object = new \stdClass;
$object->name = 'FastSitePHP';
$object->type = 'PHP Framework';

// Object can also be created dynamically when casting from an array.
$object2 = (object)[
    'name' => 'FastSitePHP',
    'type' => 'PHP Framework',

// To check if variable is defined use the [isset()] function
$defined1 = isset($object);  // true
$defined2 = isset($object3); // false

// Additional types include Resources such as a file, and callback functions.

PHP Syntax - Strings

// Similar to other languages such as JavaScript, Python, and Ruby,
// strings in PHP can be either single-quoted or double-quoted.
$value = 'Single Quoted String';
$value = "Double Quoted String";

// To combine or concatenate strings use the dot character [.]:
$greeting = 'Hello ' . 'World';

// Spaces are not required between the dot [.] and the other variables:
$greeting = 'Hello '.'World';

// You can append to a string using the [.=] operator:
$greeting = 'Hello';
$greeting .= ' World';

// Similar to Python and Ruby, double-quote strings expand variables
// for string interpolation. This prints 'Hello World':
$name = 'World';
$greeting = "Hello ${name}";

// Multi-line strings use [<<<] followed by a programmer-defined identifier
// and end the string the same identifier starting on a new code line followed
// by [;]. In this example the identifier is [EOD] for end-of-data. Multiline
// strings using this syntax support string interpolation.
$multiline1 = <<<EOD

// When using ['] characters is similar to using single-quotated strings
// so there is no string interpolation. The above example prints 'World'
// instead of '${name}' while this version prints '${name}'.
$multiline2 = <<<'EOD'

// Common String Functions using this string:
$value = ' abcdefgh ';

// String Length and Trim
$len = strlen($value);        // 10
$len2 = strlen(trim($value)); // 8

// String Search, often PHP functions return mixed data types.
// [strpos()] and [stripos()] are good examples. If the string
// is found an integer with the position is returned otherwise
// a boolean value of false is returned.
$pos = stripos($value, 'DEF'); // Case-insenstive = 4
$pos2 = strpos($value, 'DEF'); // Case-Senstive = false

// Split to an Array and Join an Array to a String.
// Rather than using [split()/join()] PHP uses [explode/implode()].
$value = '123,456,789';
$array = explode(',', $value);
$string = implode('_', $array);

// Replace
$text = 'Blue and Red';
$search = 'Red';
$replace = 'Green';
$new_value = str_replace($search, $replace, $text);

// Internally in PHP strings are implemented as an array of bytes so if you
// work with binary files or data you use the string data type. This can
// present a problem though if you need to calculate the length of a Unicode
// String for a user, find the character position, etc. To support different
// encodings PHP includes Multibyte String Functions. In general they have the
// same name and params as other string functions but are prefixed with [mb_].
$unicode = '测试';
$ulen = strlen($unicode);     // 6
$ulen2 = mb_strlen($unicode); // 2

PHP Syntax - Logic Statements

// This example outputs data to the client as it is evaluated:
//    var_dump() = PHP function to print a variable and the data type.
//    echo "\n"  = Output a new line for formatting.
$number = 5;

// Basic [if] Statement
//     Prints: '[Number equals 5]'
if ($number === 5) {
    echo '[Number equals 5]';
} else {
    echo '[Number does not equal 5]';

// [if ... else]. The example also shows using the not operator [!].
//     Prints: '[Number is positive]'
if (!is_int($number)) {
    echo '[Number is not a integer]';
} elseif ($number < 0) {
    echo '[Number is negative]';
} else {
    echo '[Number is positive]';

// Ternary Expression: (expression ? true : false)
//     Prints: [Number is even: no]
$is_even = ($number % 2 === 0 ? 'yes' : 'no');
echo "[Number is even: ${is_even}]";

// The [if] statement can be used to evaluate "truthy" values for
// other data types. The 3 statements below all evaluate to false
// because the values are empty or zero.

$empty_array = array();
if ($empty_array) {
    echo '[Array has data]';
} else {
    echo '[Array is empty]';

$empty_string = '';
if ($empty_array) {
    echo '[String has data]';
} else {
    echo '[String is empty]';

$zero = 0;
if ($zero) {
    echo '[Number is not Zero]';
} else {
    echo '[Number is Zero]';

// It's possible to exclude the middle expression when using the ternary
// operator '?:' (expression ?: default). This is known as the Elvis operator
// and returns either the result of the first expression if it evaluates
// as a "truthy" value or the 2nd expression (default value).

// Prints:
//     [Elvis Operator: Default]
$value = ($empty_string ?: 'Default');
echo "[Elvis Operator: ${value}]";

// Prints:
//     [Elvis Operator: 3]
$value = ((1 + 2) ?: 'Enter Value');
echo "[Elvis Operator: ${value}]";

// Equal [==] vs. Identical (Strict Mode) [===]
// PHP is similar to JavaScript when comparing on data types.

// These expressions all evalute to [true] because
// the data type does not have to match exactly.
echo "\n";
var_dump(1 == true);
var_dump(0 == '');
var_dump(0 == 'a');
var_dump('1' == '01');

// These expressions all evalute to [false] because
// the data type has to match exactly.
echo "\n";
var_dump(1 === true);
var_dump(0 === '');
var_dump(0 === 'a');
var_dump('1' === '01');

// Not Equal [!=] vs. Not Identical [!==]:
echo "\n";
var_dump(0 != '');  // false
var_dump(0 !== ''); // true

// Logical Operators:
echo "\n";
var_dump(true && true);   // true
var_dump(false && false); // false
var_dump(false || true);  // true

// Arrays can be easily compared in PHP
echo "\n";
$array1 = [1, 2, 3];
$array2 = [1, 2, 3];
$array3 = [1, 2, 3, 4];
var_dump($array1 === $array2); // true
var_dump($array1 === $array3); // false

// Switch Statement
// Just like the [if] statement the syntax for [switch] is similar
// to C style languages such as C and JavaScript so the same
// fallthrough rules apply.
// This example prints the season name from 4-season calendar
// in the Northern Hemisphere based on the current month.

echo "\n";
$month = date('F');

switch ($month) {
    case 'March':
    case 'April':
    case 'May':
        echo 'Spring';
    case 'June':
    case 'July':
    case 'August':
        echo 'Summer';
    case 'September':
    case 'October':
    case 'November':
        echo 'Fall (Autumn)';
    case 'December':
    case 'January':
    case 'February':
        echo 'Winter';
        echo 'Error';

PHP Syntax - Loops

// Just like the logic demo this example also outputs data as it is evaluated.

// Define arrays with the largest cities in the world (by urban area)
$cities = [
    'Tokyo', 'São Paulo', 'Jakarta', 'Seoul', 'Manila',
    'New York City', 'Shanghai', 'Cairo', 'Delhi',

$cities_population = [
    'Tokyo'     => '36,923,000',
    'São Paulo' => '36,842,102',
    'Jakarta'   => '30,075,310',
    'Seoul'     => '25,520,000',
    'Manila'    => '24,123,000',
    'New York'  => '23,689,255',
    'Shanghai'  => '23,416,000',
    'Cairo'     => '22,439,541',
    'Delhi'     => '21,753,486',

echo 'Largest Cities in the World' . "\n";
echo str_repeat('-', 40) . "\n";

// Loop through the list of cities using the [foreach] loop.
//     foreach (array as item)
foreach ($cities as $city) {
    echo $city;
    echo "\n";
echo "\n";

// Loop through a Dictionary or Associative Array using [foreach]
//     foreach (array as key => value)
foreach ($cities_population as $city => $population) {
    echo $city . ' = ' . $population;
    echo "\n";
echo "\n";

// [for] loop using C style syntax, this prints 0...9 on separate lines
for ($n = 0; $n < 10; $n++) {
    echo $n;
    echo "\n";
echo "\n";

// [while] and [do-while] loops also use C style syntax so they will be familiar
// to JavaScript developers. [continue] and [break] also work as expected.

// Prints even numbers between 0 and 8
$n = 0;
while ($n < 10) {
    if ($n % 2 !== 0) {

    echo $n;
    echo "\n";
echo "\n";

// Prints 0...4
$n = 0;
do {
    if ($n === 5) {

    echo $n;
    echo "\n";
} while ($n < 10);

PHP Syntax - Functions

// Defining and calling functions in PHP is similar to other C style languages.
// While functions are easily defined in PHP most often popular Frameworks and
// PHP projects define classes instead of functions. PHP however has many
// built-in functions that are used in development.
function add($x, $y) {
    return $x + $y;

// Optional parameters can be specified by assigning a value to the variable.
function increment($x, $y = 1) {
    return $x += $y;

// Callback functions can be defined and set to a variable just as you would
// use in JavaScript.
$subtract = function($x, $y) {
    return $x - $y;

// This code calls the above functions and prints "2"
$x = 1;
$y = 2;
$z = add($x, $y);      // returns 3
$z = increment($z);    // returns 4
$z = increment($z, 2); // returns 6
$z = $subtract($z, 4); // returns 2
echo $z;
echo '<br>';

// Unlike JavaScript PHP functions do not have access to variables in the
// parent scope. The [use] keyword can be used to pass variables from the
// parent scope. When using this syntax and setting [$x] in the called function
// [$x] does not get set from the parent scope so this code prints "1".
$scope_test = function() use ($x) {
    $x = 123;
echo $x;
echo '<br>';

// This version is similar to the above version however the variable [$x] is
// passed by-reference using the [&] operator. This version will print "123"
// because [$x] gets modified.
$scope_test = function() use (&$x) {
    $x = 123;
echo $x;
echo '<br>';

PHP Syntax - Classes and Objects

// Full details of how to define and use classes is beyond the scope of this
// quick reference page however the basic syntax is shown below which can
// help you get started.

class Math
    // Define a Member Variable
    public $value = 0;

    // Define a Class Constructor with an Optional Parameter.
    // Defining [__construct] is optional.
    public function __construct($number = 0)
        $this->value = $number;
        echo 'Class Created with Value: ' . $number . '<br>';

    // Define a Class Destructor
    public function __destruct()
        echo 'Class Destroyed<br><br>';

    // Public function that returns the object instance [$this]
    public function add($number) {
        $this->value += $number;
        return $this;

    // Function with no parameter or return value
    public function show()
        echo 'Value: ' . $this->value . '<br>';

// Prints:
Class Created with Value: 0
Value: 3
Class Destroyed
$math = new Math();
$math = null;

// Prints:
Class Created with Value: 10
Value: 15
$math = new Math(10);

// Read from a member variable:
$value = $math->value;
echo $value . '<br>';

PHP Syntax - Encoding - JSON, Base64, Base64-URL

// Create a Basic Object and Array for Encoding
$object = new \stdClass;
$object->string = 'Test';
$object->number = 123;
$object->bool = true;

$array = [
    'string' => 'Test',
    'number' => 123,
    'bool' => true,

// -------------------------------------------
// Encode and Decode JSON
// -------------------------------------------

// Since PHP Array's are used like a Dictionary or Hash, both examples print:
//     {"string":"Test","number":123,"bool":true}
$json = json_encode($object);
echo $json;
echo "\n";

$json = json_encode($array);
echo $json;
echo "\n\n";

// Use the 2nd Parameter for formatted JSON
$json = json_encode($object, JSON_PRETTY_PRINT);
echo $json;
echo "\n";

// Decode and print the object with details using [print_r()]:
$decoded = json_decode($json);
echo "\n";

// By default objects are decoded as [stdClass] objects. To return an array
// instead pass [true] as the 2nd parameter.
$decoded = json_decode($json, true);
echo "\n";

// If there is an error decoding JSON data [null] will be returned.
// If you need to handle invalid JSON you can do so like this:
if ($decoded === null && json_last_error() !== JSON_ERROR_NONE) {
    throw new \Exception('Error decoding JSON Data: ' . json_last_error_msg());

// FastSitePHP includes a JSON helper class which throws exceptions on
// JSON errors instead of the default behavior of returning [false] or [null].
$json = \FastSitePHP\Encoding\Json::encode($object);
$decoded = \FastSitePHP\Encoding\Json::decode($json);

// Often though in most code simply calling [json_encode()] or [json_decode()]
// will be enough. By default, PHP decodes large numbers as floats. If you
// want stricter decoding so they come in strings, then you can use additional
// options. This is how FastSitePHP's JSON class decodes as it is used in the
// JWT, Encryption, and SignedData classes. [JSON_BIGINT_AS_STRING] is not
// avaiable on PHP 5.3 so FastSitePHP uses compatible code.
$decoded = json_decode($json, true, 512, JSON_BIGINT_AS_STRING);

// -------------------------------------------
// Encode and Decode Base64
// -------------------------------------------

// Prints: "VGhpcyBpcyBhIHRlc3Q="
$data = 'This is a test';
$base64 = base64_encode($data);
echo $base64;
echo "\n";

// When decoding if there is an error then [false] is returned
$decoded = base64_decode($base64);
echo "\n\n";

// -------------------------------------------
// Encode and Decode Base64-URL Format
// -------------------------------------------

// PHP does not include built-in functions for Base64-URL format so
// FastSitePHP includes a helper class with static methods. They behave
// similar to the built-in functions [base64_encode()]  and [base64_decode()]
// so if there is an error then [false] is returned.

$base64url = \FastSitePHP\Encoding\Base64Url::encode($data);
echo $base64;
echo "\n";

$decoded = \FastSitePHP\Encoding\Base64Url::decode($base64url);
echo "\n";

PHP Syntax - Errors and Exceptions

// PHP uses both Errors that are triggered and Exceptions that are thrown.

// PHP handles errors a differently than many languages. For example in many
// languages a "divide by zero" error would either throw an Exception or be
// fatal and halt the program and in compiled languages an undefined variable
// would not allow the program to run. However when using PHP unless error
// reporting is set both of these errors would simply be ignored and the
// script could continue with unexpected results. This can make programming
// with PHP difficult at first if you are coming from another language.
// FastSitePHP makes things easy because it runs code in strict mode and
// converts errors to exceptions once [app->setup()] is called.

// To handle all errors and exceptions globally in PHP, four different functions
// have to be first set. These are automatically handled from [app->setup()]:
//   error_reporting()
//   set_exception_handler()
//   set_error_handler()
//   register_shutdown_function()

// In PHP [try...catch] logic is similar to many languages such as JavaScript:
try {
    throw new \Exception('Test');
} catch (\Exception $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
    echo '<br>';

// Variables can be checked if they might not exist.
// This code works and no error is triggered.
if (isset($x) === false) {
    echo 'Variable [$x] is not defined<br>';

// Uncommenting the lines below will trigger different types of errors.
// When using PHP default development settings the errors will often cause
// an error message in the middle of the code and code after will still
// be executed.
// echo $x;     // [E_NOTICE]  = "Undefined variable: x"
// echo 1 / 0;  // [E_WARNING] = "Division by zero"

// FastSitePHP converts Errors to Exceptions so they can be caught.
try {
    echo $x;
} catch (\Exception $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
    echo '<br>';

try {
    echo 1 / 0;
} catch (\Exception $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
    echo '<br>';

Hello World with FastSitePHP

// Only two files are required to run FastSitePHP and they can
// be in the same directory as [index.php] or the contents can
// be embedded in the main php page.
require 'Application.php';
require 'Route.php';

// Create the Application Object and optionally setup
// Error Handling and a Timezone.
$app = new FastSitePHP\Application();

// Define the 'Hello World' default route
$app->get('/', function() {
    return 'Hello World!';

// Return a JSON Response by returning an Object or an Array
$app->get('/json', function() {
    return ['Hello' => 'World'];

// For all other requests, return the URL as a plain text response.
// The [use] keyword makes the [$app] variable available to the function.
$app->get('/*', function() use ($app) {
    $app->header('Content-Type', 'text/plain');
    return $app->requestedPath();

// Run the App

Application Object - Defining Basic Routes

// The Application Object is the key Object in FastSitePHP. It is used to
// define routes, provide request info, render templates, send the response,
// and more. If you are using a copy of this site or a starter site the
// Application Object will be available as the variable [$app] and routes
// are defined in the page [app.php].

// Basic Route
// Send an HTML Response when either '/about' or '/about/' is requested
$app->get('/about', function() {
    return '<h1>About Page</h1>';

// By default URL's are case-sensitive however this can be
// turned off and then '/ABOUT' would match the above route.
$app->case_sensitive_urls = false;

// If setting URL strict mode then the above URL would only match
// to '/about' and '/about/' would have to be explicitly defined.
$app->strict_url_mode = true;
$app->get('/about/', function() {
    return '<h1>About Directory</h1>';

// The about call using [get()] matches only 'GET' requests. If you would like
// to handle both 'GET' and 'POST' or other methods with the same route you
// can define the route using the [route()] function then check the if there is
// data sent with the request as shown below. The [route()] function will accept
// all request methods.
$app->route('/form', function() {
    if ($_POST) {
        // Handle posted form data
    // Handle GET request, return rendered template, etc

// In addition to GET Requests you can handle [ POST, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE]
// Requests using named functions.
$app->get('/method', function() { return 'get()'; });
$app->post('/method', function() { return 'post()'; });
$app->put('/method', function() { return 'put()'; });
$app->patch('/method', function() { return 'patch()'; });
$app->delete('/method', function() { return 'delete()'; });

// The same URL can be defined multiple times and the first matching response
// will stop additional routes from being evaluated. In this example the route
// '/example' will return the text 'Example 2'.
$app->get('/example', function() { return null; });
$app->get('/example', function() { return 'Example 2'; });
$app->get('/example', function() { return 'Example 3'; });

// In addition to returning a response you can also simply output a response
// using [echo] or other functions.
$app->get('/echo-response', function() {
    echo 'Output';

Define a Route with a Parameter

// Send a response 'Hello FastSitePHP!' for the URL '/hello/FastSitePHP'.
// The ':name' text in the route pattern defines a parameter for the route
// because it starts with the ':' character.
$app->get('/hello/:name', function($name) {
    return 'Hello ' . $name;

Define a Route with an Optional Parameter

// Send a response 'Hello World!' for the URL '/hello' or in the case of the
// optional [name] variable safely escape and return a message with the name.
// The [use] keyword makes the [$app] variable available to the function
// and the question mark in the URL pattern ':name?' makes the variable optional.
$app->get('/hello/:name?', function($name = 'World') use ($app) {
    return 'Hello ' . $app->escape($name) . '!';

// In addition to optional parameters a wildcard character '*' can be used at
// the end of the URL to handle all requests that match the start of the URL.
// In this example the following two URL's would both be matched.
//     '/hello/world'
//     '/hello/page1/page2/page3'
$app->get('/hello/*', function() use ($app) {
    $app->header('Content-Type', 'text/plain');
    return $app->requestedPath();

Define a Route that maps to a Controller Class

// Defining routes with callback functions allows for fast prototyping
// and works well when minimal logic is used. As code grows in size it
// can be organized into controller classes.

// Optionally specify the Controller Class Root Namespace. When using this if a
// class 'Examples' is created then it will map to 'App\Controllers\Examples'.
$app->controller_root = 'App\Controllers';

// Similar to [controller_root] is [middleware_root] which applies to
// [Route->filter()] and [$app->mount()] functions.
$app->middleware_root = 'App\Middleware';

// The two format options are 'class' and 'class.method'. When using only
// class name then the route function [route(), get(), post(),  put(), etc]
// will be used for the method name of the matching controller.
$app->get('/:lang/examples', 'Examples');
$app->get('/:lang/examples/:page', 'Examples.getExample');

// Controller Class Example
class Examples
    public function get(Application $app, $lang) { }
    public function getExample(Application $app, $lang, $page) { }

// In addition to organizing code into controller classes you can also separate
// routes into separate files using the [mount()] function. The mount function
// will load a file in the same directory only if the starting part of the
// Requested URL matches the Mount URL. An optional 3rd parameter accepts a
// callback function or string of 'Class.method' and if false is returned
// then the file won't be loaded.
$app->mount('/data/', 'routes-data.php');
$app->mount('/secure/', 'routes-secure.php', function() {
    // Logic ...
    return false;
$app->mount('/sysinfo/', 'routes-secure.php', 'Env.isLocalhost');

Route Parameter Validation

// The Application Object has a [param()] function which can be used to
// validate and convert URL parameters to a specific format such as a number.

// The function is defined as:
//     param($name, $validation, $converter = null)

// Parameters:
//     Validation = ['any', 'int', 'float', 'bool'], a valid regular expression,
//         or a Closure/Callback function. When using 'int|float|bool' the data
//         type will automatically be converted.
//     Convertor = ['int', 'float', 'bool'] or a Closure/Callback function.

// Basic Example
//     '/product/123' = Match and [$product_id] will be an integer
//     '/product/abc' = 404 Page Not Found
$app->param(':product_id', 'int');
$app->get('/product/:product_id', function($product_id) {

// Additional Examples of Defining Parameter Rules. For more see full
// documentation and other examples.

$range_param = function($value) {
    $num = (int)$value;
    if ($num >= 5 && $num <= 10) {
        return true;
    } else {
        return false;

    ->param(':range1', $range_param)
    ->param(':range2', $range_param, 'int')
    ->param(':range3', $range_param, function($value) {
        return (int)$value;

$app->param(':float', 'float');
$app->param(':bool', 'any', 'bool');

$app->param(':regex1', '/^\d+$/');
$app->param(':regex2', '/^[a-zA-Z]*$/');

Use Route Filters

// Routes can have custom filter functions assigned to them to run specific
// code if a route is matched, perform validation, or another task required
// by your site. Filter functions only run if the route is matched to the
// requested URL.

// Define some callback/closure functions
$text_response = function() use ($app) {
    $app->header('Content-Type', 'text/plain');
$is_authenticated = function() {
    // Check User Permissions ...
    return true;

// When routes are created [get(), route(), post(), etc], the created route
// is returned so you can call [filter()] after defining the route.
// This page will be returned as Plain Text page because the filter function
// sets the Response Header and returns no value.
$app->get('/text-page', function($name) {
    return 'Hello';

// A route can have multiple filters and for clarity you may want to put
// filter functions on separate lines. This page will only be called if
// [$is_authenticated] returns [true] and it will also be a text response.
$app->get('/secure-text-page', function($name) {
    return 'Hello ' . $name;

// The [filter()] function also accepts a string representing
// a class and method in the format of 'Class.method'.
$app->get('/phpinfo', function($name) {

// When using string filters you can specify a root namespace
// for the classes using the App property [middleware_root].
$app->middleware_root = 'App\Middleware';

Application Object - Basic Request Info

// Many frameworks require special configuration values in order to handle
// requests. FastSitePHP figures this out automatically and provides several
// functions in the Application Object to return basic request info.

// If your site does not use a proxy server such as load balancer then these
// functions can be used for building URL's or other app needs. If your site
// uses a load balancer with custom host headers then you would want to use
// the request object to obtain the root URL.

// Root or Base URL for the Site. This is often needed to build full path
// URL's on web pages.
// Examples:
//     # [index.php] specified in the URL
//     Request: https://www.example.com/index.php/page
//              https://www.example.com/index.php/page/page2
//     Returns: https://www.example.com/index.php/
//     # [index.php] Located in Root Folder
//     Request: https://www.example.com/page
//              https://www.example.com/page/page2
//     Returns: https://www.example.com/
//     # [index.php] Located under [site1]
//     Request: https://www.example.com/site1/page
//              https://www.example.com/site1/page/page2
//     Returns: https://www.example.com/site1/
$root_url = $app->rootUrl();

// Root Directory for the Site. Often needed to build URL's for Static
// Resources such as CSS or JavaScript files.
//     Request: https://www.example.com/index.php/page
//              https://www.example.com/index.php/page/page2
//              https://www.example.com/page
//     Returns: https://www.example.com/
$root_dir = $app->rootDir();

// Get the Requested URL which exits after the Root URL. This will be
// based on where the [index.php] or entry PHP file is located.
//     Request: https://www.example.com/index.php/test/test?test=test
//              https://www.example.com/index.php/test/test
//              https://www.example.com/test/test/
//              https://www.example.com/test/test
//              https://www.example.com/site1/index.php/test/test
//     Returns: '/test/test'
// In the above example both '/test/test/' and '/test/test' return
// '/test/test' when using the default property [$app->strict_url_mode = false]
// otherwise the exact URL would be returned.
$requested_path = $app->requestedPath();

// Example usage for building URL's:
$site_css = $app->rootDir() . 'css/site.css';
$docs_link = $app->rootUrl() . '/documents';
// <link href="{{ $site_css }}" rel="stylesheet" />
// <a href="{{ $docs_link }}">Documents</a>

Dynamic Functions and Lazy Loading Properties

// FastSitePHP allows for the Application Object to be assigned dynamic
// functions and lazy loading properties. This allows for custom functions
// and resources shared by many routes to be organized under a global object
// and can allow for simple and clear dependancy injection.

// JavaScript Example - This works to add a function dynamically to an object:
// var obj = {};
// obj.test = function() { alert('test'); };
// obj.test();

// PHP Example - The function can be assigned to a property however if called
// an error is triggered - 'Call to undefined method ...'.
$obj = new \stdClass;
$obj->test = function() { echo 'test'; };
// $obj->test();

// When using FastSitePHP's Application object you can simply assign and use
// functions just like in JavaScript or Ruby.
$app->test = function() { echo 'test'; };

// The native PHP function [method_exists()] will not work for custom functions
// so to check if either a built-in or custom App method exists use this.
$exists = $app->methodExists('test');

// The [lazyLoad()] function accepts a property name and callback function.
// It creates the object as a property of the app only if used. This is ideal
// for working with sites where some pages use a resource and some do not.
$app->lazyLoad('db', function() {
    return $pdo = new \PDO('sqlite::memory:');

// [$app->db] gets set here on first use.
$sql = 'CREATE TABLE test (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, test)';

// [$app->db] now works as a standard property as it was previously called.
$sql = 'SELECT * FROM sqlite_master';
$records = $app->db->query($sql)->fetchAll(\PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);

Application Events

// Just like the Hello World Demo this code can be copied to a separate
// [index.php] or other file and then tested.

// There are 5 Application callback events:
//     before(), beforeSend(), after(), notFound(), and error()
// They can be used to handle custom logic while the application is running.

// Load Files
require 'Application.php';
require 'Route.php';
// Or use an Autoloader:
// require '../../vendor/autoload.php';

// Create and Setup App Object
$app = new FastSitePHP\Application();

// ------------------------------------------------------------------
// Define Events
// ------------------------------------------------------------------

// [Before] Events will be called from the [run()] function prior to any routes
// being matched. All Event functions can be called multiple times and will
// run in order that they are defined.
$app->before(function() use ($app) {
    $app->content = '[before1]';
$app->before(function() use ($app) {
    $app->content .= '[before2]'; // Append

// [Before Send] Events will be called from the [run()] function after
// a route has been matched to the requested resource. Functions passed
// to the [beforeSend()] function should be defined as [function($content)]
// and they must return a response otherwise a 404 'Not found' response will
// be sent to the client.
$app->beforeSend(function($content) {
    return $content . '[beforeSend]';

// [Not Found] Events will be called from the [run()] function after all
// routes have been checked with no routes matching the requested resource.
// Functions passed to the [notFound()] function take no parameters and
// if they return a response then it be handled as a standard route and
// will call any defined [beforeSend()] functions afterwards.
$app->notFound(function() use ($app) {
    return $app->content . '[notFound]';

// [Error] Events will be triggered if an unhandled Exception is thrown,
// an error is triggered, or a route is not matched and would trigger a
// 404 or 405 response. This function can be used to log errors or handle
// the response with a custom error. If [exit()] is not called then the
// specified  or standard FastSitePHP error template will be rendered.
$app->error(function($response_code, $e) use ($app) {
    // $response_code = [null, 404, 405, or 500]
    // $e = [null, Exception, or Throwable]
    if ($app->requestedPath() === '/error-test-1') {
        echo $app->content . '[Custom Error]';

// [After] Events will be called from the [run()] function after the response
// has been sent to the client. Functions passed to the [after()] function
// should be defined as [function($content)]; the [$content] parameter defined
// in the callback is the contents of the response that was sent to the client
// and it cannot be modified from here. The only way that [after()]  functions
// will not get called is if their script is terminated early from  PHP's
// [exit()] statement or if the error handling is not setup and an error occurs.
$app->after(function($content) {
    echo '[after]';

// ------------------------------------------------------------------
// Define Routes
// ------------------------------------------------------------------

// This response will output the following:
//     [before1][before2][page][beforeSend][after]
$app->get('/', function() use ($app) {
    return $app->content . '[page]';

// Call URL '/test' and see the following:
//     [before1][before2][notFound][beforeSend][after]

// This response will output the following:
//    [before1][before2][Custom Error]
$app->get('/error-test-1', function() {
    throw new \Exception('Error Test 1');

// Displays Standard Error Page with [after] showing at very bottom
$app->get('/error-test-2', function() {
    throw new \Exception('Error Test 2');

// ------------------------------------------------------------------
// Run the App
// ------------------------------------------------------------------

PHP Template Example

// This is the contents of the file [template.php] which is shown as an example
// on this page. When calling [render()] the Application Object is passed as
// [$app] which allows for [escape()] and other functions to be used. In addition
// to the standard [if (expression) { code }] syntax PHP provides an alternative
// syntax for control structures when using templates [if (expr): (code) endif].
// PHP templates are high performance and use very little memory however the
// syntax can be considered more verbose than many modern template formats. If
// you prefer to use a different template format there are many widely used and
// high quality template engines for PHP that can be intergrated with FastSitePHP.

<h1><?= $app->escape($page_title) ?></h1>
<?php if (count($list) === 0): ?>
    <p>No Records found</p>
<?php else: ?>
        <?php foreach ($list as $item): ?>
            <li><?= $app->escape($item) ?></li>
        <?php endforeach ?>
<?php endif ?>
<p><?= $app->escape($year) ?></p>

Application - Render Server-Side Template Files

// Set the Template Root Directory and Specific Core Files
$app->template_dir = __DIR__ . '/views/';
// $app->header_templates = '_header.php';
// $app->footer_templates = '_footer.php';
// $app->error_template = 'error.php'; // For 500 Responses
// $app->not_found_template = '404.php'; // For 404 and 405 Responses

// Optionally show detailed errors when using the default error
// template and set custom error messages. With the default template
// detail errors will be displayed when running from localhost.
$app->show_detailed_errors = true;
// $app->error_page_title = 'Custom Error Page';
// $app->error_page_message = 'Custom Error Message';
// $app->not_found_page_title = 'Custom 404 Page';
// $app->not_found_page_message = 'Custom 404 Message';
// $app->method_not_allowed_title = 'Custom 405 Page';
// $app->method_not_allowed_message = 'Custom 405 Message';

// Define Data for the Template. Variables can be defined in the App's
// [locals] property and they can be passed on the render function.
$app->locals['year'] = date('Y');
$data = [
    'page_title' => 'PHP Template Example',
    'list' => ['Item 1', 'Item 2', 'Item 3', 'Item 4'],

// Render the PHP Template and return a string.
// The template source is shown in the above example code section.
$html = $app->render('template.php', $data);

Application - Render with a Custom Template Engine

// Define a Custom Template Engine that uses the
// popular Mustache Template System.
$app->engine(function($file, array $data = null) {
    $dir = __DIR__ . '/views/';
    $options = [
        'cache' => dirname(__FILE__).'/tmp/cache/mustache',
        'loader' => new Mustache_Loader_FilesystemLoader($dir, ['extension' => '.htm']),
    $mustache = new Mustache_Engine($options);
    $tmpl = $mustache->loadTemplate($file);
    $html = $tmpl->render($data);
    return $html;

// Define Data for the Template
$app->locals['year'] = date('Y');
$data = [
    'page_title' => 'Mustache Template Example',
    'list' => ['Item 1', 'Item 2', 'Item 3', 'Item 4'],
    'has_list' => true,

// Render the Template
$html = $app->render('template.mustache', $data);

// When using Custom Templates you can define Custom Error and Not Found Pages:
// $app->error_template = 'error'; // For 500 Responses
// $app->not_found_template = '404'; // For 404 and 405 Responses

HTTP Request Object - Reading Query Strings, Form Fields, and Cookies

// The request object can be used obtain info from the client for an
// HTTP request. This includes query strings, form fields, cookies,
// headers, and more. The request object also contains functions to
// sanitize (“clean”) and safely read client info.

// Without using a Framework, Query Strings, Form Variables and other
// User Input can be read through PHP Superglobals [$_GET, $_POST, etc].
// Example, read the Query String Field [number]:
$number = $_GET['number'];

// If the query string [type] does not exist then the above code
// would throw an exception so to safely get the value you can first
// check if it is set.
$number = (isset($_GET['number']) ? $_GET['number'] : null);

// An additional line of PHP code can be used to force a numeric value:
$number = (int)$number;

// The Request object can be used instead to safely read the values, convert
// data types, etc. To use the Request object simply create one:
$req = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Request();

// You can then read query strings by name without including safety logic:
$number = $req->queryString('number');

// An optional 2nd parameter can be used to convert to a specific data type.
// In this example the value will be converted to an interger if it is valid
// otherwise null will be returned.
$number = $req->queryString('number', 'int?');

// In addition to [queryString()] functions [form()] and [cookie()] can be
// used in the same manner.
$value  = $req->form('field');
$cookie = $req->cookie('name');

// The Request object also contains a helper function to handle user input
// or objects where a value may or may not exist. This can be used to prevent
// errors when reading complex JSON object and to to sanitize (“clean”) data
// from any object or array.
// Function Definititon:
//     value($data, $key, $format = 'value?', $max_length = null)
// Data Example:
//     $_POST['input1'] = 'test';
//     $_POST['input2'] = '123.456';
//     $_POST['checkbox1'] = 'on';
//     $json = [
//         'app' => 'FastSitePHP',
//         'strProp' => 'abc',
//         'numProp' => '123',
//         'items' => [ ['name' => 'item1'], ['name' => 'item2'] ],'
//    ];
// Function Examples:
//    'test'        = $req->value($_POST, 'input1');
//    // Truncate the string to 2 characters:
//    'te'          = $req->value($_POST, 'input1',    'string', 2);
//    123.456       = $req->value($_POST, 'input2',    'float');
//    ''            = $req->value($_POST, 'missing',   'string'); // Missing
//    1             = $req->value($_POST, 'checkbox1', 'checkbox');
//    0             = $req->value($_POST, 'checkbox2', 'checkbox'); // Missing
//    true          = $req->value($_POST, 'checkbox1', 'bool');
//    'FastSitePHP' = $req->value($json,  'app');
//    'abc'         = $req->value($json,  'strProp',   'string?');
//    0             = $req->value($json,  'strProp',   'int');  // Invalid Int
//    null          = $req->value($json,  'strProp',   'int?'); // Invalid Int
//    123           = $req->value($json,  'numProp',   'int');
//    'item1'       = $req->value($json,  ['items', 0, 'name']);
//    'item2'       = $req->value($json,  ['items', 1, 'name']);
//    null          = $req->value($json,  ['items', 2, 'name']); // Missing
// See full documentation for more. If you need full validation rather than
// data cleaning see the [\FastSitePHP\Data\Validator] class.

HTTP Request Object - Request JSON and Content

// Create the Request Object
$req = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Request();

// Get the Request Content Type. This is a helper field that returns
// a simple value based on the 'Content-Type' header:
//     'json'      = 'application/json'
//     'form'      = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'
//     'xml'       = 'text/xml' or 'application/xml'
//     'text'      = 'text/plain'
//     'form-data' = 'multipart/form-data'
// If different the raw header value will be returned and if the header
// is not defined then [null] will be returned.
$type = $req->contentType();

// The Request body/content can be read from [content()]. If the Request Type
// is JSON then the object will be parsed and an object/array will be returned.
// If [contentType() === 'form'] then an array will be returned otherwise the
// body/content is returned as a string. In PHP a string can also be used for
// binary data as a string is simply array of bytes.
$body = $req->content();

// The [value()] function can be used to safely read nested values from a
// submitted JSON object. See other examples and docs for more on using the
// [value() function.
$value = $req->value($body,  ['items', 0, 'name']);

HTTP Request Object - Header Fields

// Create the Request Object
$req = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Request();

// Reading Common Header Fields can be done through functions:
$origin = $req->origin();
$userAgent = $req->userAgent();
$referrer = $req->referrer();
$client_ip = $req->clientIp();
$protocol = $req->protocol();
$host = $req->host();
$port = $req->port();

// When using functions with 'Accept' Headers an array of data is returned,
// and an optional parameter can be passed to return [true] or [false].
$accept_encoding = $req->acceptEncoding();
$accept_language = $req->acceptLanguage();

// Example:
//    'Accept-Language' Header Value = 'ru-RU,ru;q=0.8,en-US;q=0.6,en;q=0.4'
// Returns:
//    [
//        ['value' => 'ru-RU', 'quality' => null],
//        ['value' => 'ru',    'quality' => 0.8],
//        ['value' => 'en-US', 'quality' => 0.6],
//        ['value' => 'en',    'quality' => 0.4],
//    ];

$accept_en = $req->acceptLanguage('en'); // true
$accept_de = $req->acceptLanguage('de'); // false

// Any header can be read when using the [header()] function:
$content_type = $req->header('Content-Type');
$user_agent = $req->header('User-Agent');

// Header Keys are Case-insensitive so the following all return the same value:
$content_type = $req->header('content-type');
$content_type = $req->header('CONTENT-TYPE');
$content_type = $req->header('Content-Type');

// All headers can be read from the [headers()] function:
$headers = $req->headers();

HTTP Request Object - Proxy Header Fields

// Create the Request Object
$req = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Request();

// Request Proxy Headers are used for key fields such as client IP when a
// web server sits behind a “proxy” server on a local network, for example
// a load balancer. Reading the values correctly is important for security,
// however in general with any programming language or framework reading proxy
// headers if often difficult and requires extra config. FastSitePHP makes
// the task easy with no config required.

// For example, simply reading the Client IP of the request can be done
// by reading the value of REMOTE_ADDR.
$client_ip = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];

// If the load balancer is configured to provide the Client IP it will
// usually be one of the following Request Headers [X-Forwarded-For,
// Client-Ip, or Forwarded]. However since the end user can send data with
// the Request Header it must be read correctly. The standardized header
// [Forwarded] has a format like this:
//     'for=, for="[2001:db8:cafe::17]";proto=http;by='
// While non-standard but widely used headers such as [X-Forwarded-For] use
// this format:
//     'client-ip1, client-ip2, proxy1, proxy2'
// FastSitePHP handles both formats.

// For example assume the load balancer is at '', '' is used
// for additional content filtering, and [X-Forwarded-For] came in with the
// the following value:
//     [REMOTE_ADDR]      =   ''
//     [X-Forwarded-For]  =   "' OR '1'='1 --,,,"
// In this example, the following was submitted:
//     - Client - A SQL Injection String of "' OR '1'='1 --"
//     - Client - A localhost IP []
//     - Client - Actual IP []
//     - Server -

// When simply reading Client IP without any parameters the IP of the load
// balancer is returned for this example which is ''.
$client_ip = $req->clientIp();

// Then when using the default 'from proxy' setting the correct User IP
// value of '' is returned. If no proxy server is used then the
// default settings of 'from proxy' are safe to call.
$user_ip = $req->clientIp('from proxy');

// When using proxies an optional 2nd parameter of [$trusted_proxies] is
// avaiable. This defaults to the string 'trust local', however an array
// of specific IP or IP Ranges (CIDR format) can be used for more specific
// filtering. Additionally the first parameter [$option] can also be
// modified to read from different Request Headers.
$user_ip = $req->clientIp('from proxy', 'trust local');

// In addition to Client IP, proxy values can also be read for
// [Protocol, Host, and Port]:
$portocal = $req->protocol('from proxy'); // 'http' or 'https'
$host = $req->host('from proxy');
$port = $req->port('from proxy');

Request Object - Server Info

// The Request Object can return the Server IP and has a helper function
// [isLocal()] that returns true only if both the requesting client and
// the web server are on localhost ['' or '::1']. In certain apps
// you may want to enable certain features for development or local work
// and these functions help with that.
$req = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Request();
$server_ip = $req->serverIp();
$is_local  = $req->isLocal();

// NOTE - the Web Server IP is often different than the actual Network IP.
// To obtain the network IP (location of the server) use the Networking
// Config Object instead:
$config = new \FastSitePHP\Net\Config();
$net_ip = $config->networkIp();

Response - Content, Status Codes, Headers, Cookies, and Files

// By default when a string is returned in a route the server returns an
// HTML response. Without creating a Response Object, the Application Object
// can be used to specify a different 'Content-Type' Header which is what
// Browsers and HTTP Clients use to determine how to handle the response.
$app->get('/app-text-response', function() use ($app) {
    $app->header('Content-Type', 'text/plain');
    return 'Response using the Application Object';

// When using the Response Object [contentType()] and [content()]
// are the main functions to specify different content types.
$app->get('/text-response', function() {
    $res = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Response();
    return $res->contentType('text')->content('Text Response');

// When using the Response Object, properties are set through getter/setter
// functions and are chainable so they can be used on one line as shown
// above or separated to multiple lines as shown here.
$app->get('/text-response2', function() {
    return (new \FastSitePHP\Web\Response())
        ->content('Text Response 2');

// Using the Response Object
$res = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Response();

// Set the 'Content-Type' Header.
// The following 3 function calls all set the same value.
// The difference is that [contentType()] is a helper function which allows
// for short-hand values of [html, json, jsonp, text, css, javascript, xml].
$res->header('Content-Type', 'text/plain');

// Set Content
// For most content types use a string when setting [content()].

// For JSON Content either Objects and Arrays are used
$object = [
    'title' => 'Demo',
    'number' => '123',


// The helper [json()] function sets both [contentType()] and [content()]

// For formatted JSON set the option [JSON_PRETTY_PRINT] before sending
// the Response. By default [JSON_UNESCAPED_UNICODE] is used and JSON
// is minimized. Any constant used by [json_encode()] can be set here.

// Status Codes
// [$app] only supports [200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 404, and 500]
// and the Response Object allows and handles 304 Responses along
// with any other valid or custom status codes.

// A helper function [pageNotFound()] exists on the Application Object that
// can be used to send a 404 response along with default or custom 404 page.
$app->get('/document/:name', function($name) use ($app) {
    if ($name !== 'test') {
        return $app->pageNotFound();
    return 'Test';

// Specify a file for the response; the file specified will be streamed to the
// client and sent in a memory efficient manner so this function can be called
// on very large files with minimal performance impact for the server.
$file_path = __FILE__;

// Include specific Mime-Type along with Headers for Caching.
// Another topic on this page covers caching in more detail.
$res->file($file_path, 'text', 'etag:md5', 'private');

// Example File Usage
$app->get('/view-source-code', function() {
    $file_path = __FILE__;
    $res = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Response();
    return $res->file($file_path, 'download');

// Convert a file name or file type to a mime-type.
// File extensions that map to a Mime type with the function are:
//     Text: htm, html, txt, css, csv, md, markdown, jsx
//     Image: jpg, jpeg, png, gif, webp, svg, ico
//     Application: js, json, xml, pdf, woff
//     Video: mp4, webm, ogv, flv
//     Audio: mp3, weba, ogg, m4a, aac
// If a file type is not associated with a mime-type then a file
// download type of 'application/octet-stream' will be returned.
$mime_type = $res->fileTypeToMimeType('video.mp4');
$mime_type = $res->fileTypeToMimeType('mp4');

// Set Response Headers and Cookies

// Using the Application Object
$app->header('X-API-Key', 'App_1234');
$app->cookie('X-API-Key', 'App_1234');

// Or using the Response Object
$res->header('X-API-Key', 'Res_1234');
$res->cookie('X-API-Key', 'Res_1234');

// When creating a Response Object the Application Object can be
// passed and all App settings from [statusCode(), cors(), noCache(), headers(),
// cookies(), and [json_options] will be passed to the Response Object.
$res = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Response($app);

HTTP Redirects

// HTTP Requests can be redirected using either the App or Response Object.
// When using the App Object and calling [redirect()] the PHP script ends
// immediately however any events defined from [after()] will be called.
// If your site uses Server-side Unit Testing you may want to use the response
// object which behaves as a regular route and doesn’t end script execution.

// User makes this request
$app->get('/page1', function() use ($app) {

// Or User makes this request
$app->get('/page2', function() {
    $res = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Response();
    return $res->redirect('page3');

// User will then see this URL and Response
$app->get('/page3', function() {
    return 'page3';

// The default Response Status Code is [302 'Found'] (Temporary Redirect),
// and an optional 2nd parameter for both App and Response allow for
// additional redirect response status codes:
//   301  Moved Permanently
//   302  Found
//   303  See Other
//   307  Temporary Redirect
//   308  Permanent Redirect
$app->get('/old-page', function() use ($app) {
    $app->redirect('new-page', 301);

Response - Cache Headers and Client-Side Caching

// Examples below show how to use Response Headers to control how a Browser
// or HTTP Client caches a Page or Resource.

// Prevent a Browser or Client from Caching a Page or File.
// Both the Application and the Response Objects have a [noCache()] function.
// Calling these functions will send 3 Response Headers to the client:
//     Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store, must-revalidate
//     Pragma: no-cache
//     Expires: -1

$res = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Response();

// If using certain Response Headers the Response Object will send a 304
// "Not Modified" Response depending on the Request Headers. 304 Responses
// are used by Browsers and other Clients to re-use previously fetched resources
// from their cached copy. This allows the user to see static resources more
// quickly and reduces the amount of traffic sent from the server.

// 'Cache-Control' Response Header. This header has different options to tell
// clients how they can cache a page. In this example only end users and not
// proxy servers can cache the response and they must re-validate it each time.
$res->cacheControl('private, must-revalidate');

// 'Expires' Response Header. This header is used to tell a client how long the
// content is valid for, however depending on 'Cache-Control' options this value
// may be ignored. Setting this value though does not trigger a 304 response and
// it's up to the browser or client how to handle it.
$res->expires('+1 month');

// 'ETag' Response Header (ETag is short for Entity Tag). An ETag represents a
// unique value for the content (often using a Hash). Browsers and Clients will
// send back an 'If-None-Match' Request Header with the version that they have
// cached and if it matches then the Response Object will send a 304 Response
// without the content since the browser can use the local copy.

// The [etag()] function also accepts the hash itself or a closure function.
$res->etag(function($content) {
    return sha256($content);

// The optional 2nd parameter accepts the ETag Type of either 'strong' or 'weak'.
// The default is 'weak' and that is recommended to avoid complex caching errors.
// If you need to use 'strong' ETags you would likely want to do extra testing.
$res->etag('hash:sha256', 'weak');

// 'Last-Modified' Response Header. If set and if the client sends back an
// 'If-Modified-Since' Request Header that matches then a 304 Response will
// be sent. When setting the value use a Unix Timestamp or String that can be
// parsed by the PHP Function [strtotime()].
$res->lastModified('2019-01-01 13:01:30');

// 'Vary' Response Header. The 'Vary' Response Header can be used to
// specify rules for HTTP Caching and also to provide content hints to
// Google and other Search Engines.
$res->vary('User-Agent, Referer');

// When sending a file as the response you can specify optional parameters
// [$cache_type and $cache_control]. Cache Type has 3 valid options shown
// below and Cache Control sets the [cacheControl()] function.
$file_path = __FILE__;
$content_type = 'text';
$res->file($file_path, $content_type, 'etag:md5');
$res->file($file_path, $content_type, 'etag:sha1',     'private');
$res->file($file_path, $content_type, 'last-modified', 'public');

// When sending etags with [file()] and using either 'etag:md5' or 'etag:sha1'
// the hash is calculated each time. If you use ETags and have large files
// or frequently accessed files it would be a good idea to save the hash
// when the file is first created and set it through the [etag()] function.
$saved_hash = '0132456789abcdef';

Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)

// CORS is commonly used in Web API's to share data from one site or
// domain with another domain (cross-orign resource). To include the
// 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' Header in your response use the [cors()]
// function. First make sure to set CORS headers from the App Object.

// If you're using the Response Object, pass the App Object to either the
// Response at its creation or to its [cors()] function.
$res = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Response($app);

// When passing a string the 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' is validated
// and set, however, if you need to pass additional CORS, use an array
// with named headers instead.
    'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' => 'https://www.example.com',
    'Access-Control-Allow-Headers' => 'Authorization, Content-Type',
    'Access-Control-Allow-Credentials' => 'true',
    'Access-Control-Max-Age' => 86400,

// If calling a POST, PUT, DELETE or other Request Method you may need
// to handle OPTIONS requests. When using CORS and an OPTIONS request is
// processed, FastSitePHP will automatically set the header
// 'Access-Control-Allow-Methods' based on how routes are defined.
// To make sure OPTIONS requests are handled first create a function
// that sets the CORS value.
$cors = function () use ($app) {

// Assign the Filter Function to the routes that use CORS:
$app->post('/api-data', function() {
    return [ 'example' => 'POST' ];

$app->put('/api-data', function() {
    return [ 'example' => 'PUT' ];

// If you do not want to allow FastSitePHP to handle OPTIONS
// requests you can turn it off using this option:
$app->allow_options_requests = false;

Secure Cookies

// FastSitePHP allows for easy handling of Secure Cookies (Encrypted, Signed,
// or JWT). To use generate a secure key and save it with app config values.
// For more on config and crypto settings see other docs on this site.
// Strong keys are important for security and are required by default.

// $app->config['ENCRYPTION_KEY'] = 'eada343fc415625494bfd1b065ba...';
// $app->config['SIGNING_KEY'] = 'ab2403a36467b59b20cc314bb211e18...';
// $app->config['JWT_KEY'] = 'fkeVxeElykoCBzRTIUjxwTD9MIg71nXxOEQ...';

// The Request object has three functions that use the config keys to read
// and verify the secure cookies.If the cookies don't exist, are invalid,
// are expired etc then [null] will be returned.
$req = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Request();
$decrypted = $req->decryptedCookie('encrypted');
$verified = $req->verifiedCookie('signed');
$jwt = $req->jwtCookie('jwt');

// Encrypted and Signed Data can be of any basic type [Strings, Numbers,
// Objects, etc], while JWT's require an Object or an Array/Dictionary.
$text = 'Request Time: ' . date(DATE_RFC2822);

$user = new \stdClass;
$user->id = 123;
$user->name = 'Admin';
$user->role = 'Admin';

// To send with the Response pass data to the corresponding response method.
// An optional 3rd parameter exits for an expiration time for both
// [signedCookie()] and [jwtCookie()] that defaults to 1 hour. This
// applies to the signed data or JWT and not the cookie itself.
$res = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Response();
$res->encryptedCookie('encrypted', $text);
$res->signedCookie('signed', $user, '+20 minutes');
$res->jwtCookie('jwt', $user, '+20 minutes');

Connect to a Database and run SQL Statements

// FastSitePHP provides a Database class which is a thin wrapper for PDO to
// reduce the amount of code needed when querying a database. An additional
// example on this page shows how to use PDO.

// Connect to a Database, this example uses SQLite with a temp in-memory db.
$dsn = 'sqlite::memory:';
$db = new \FastSitePHP\Data\Database($dsn);

// Depending on the connection 4 additional parameters can also be used:
$user = null;
$password = null;
$persistent = false;
$options = [];
$db = new Database($dsn, $user, $password, $persistent, $options);

// Create tables and test records. The function [execute()] is used for
// action queries (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, etc) and returns the
// number of affected rows.

$db->execute('CREATE TABLE page_types (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, page_type)');

$sql .= ' type_id, title, content)';

// This example uses a double-quotes for the string ["] because SQL strings
// include the single-quote character ['] for text.
$sql = "INSERT INTO page_types (id, page_type) VALUES (1, 'text/plain')";
$rows_added = $db->execute($sql);

// An optional 2nd parameter for parameters can be used. This is recommended
// when for user input to prevent SQL Injection Attacks. The Question Mark [?]
// is the placeholder character to use in the SQL statement.
$sql = 'INSERT INTO page_types (id, page_type) VALUES (?, ?)';
$params = [2, 'text/html'];
$rows_added += $db->execute($sql, $params);

// Multiple records can be added (or updated, etc) when using [executeMany()]
$sql = 'INSERT INTO pages (type_id, title, content) VALUES (?, ?, ?)';
$records = [
    [1, 'Text Test Page', 'This is a test.'],
    [2, 'HTML Test Page', '<h1>Test<h1><p>This is a test.</p>'],
$rows_added += $db->executeMany($sql, $records);

// In addition to using [?] you can also used named parameters in the
// format of ":name". Named parameters can make the code easier to read.
$sql = 'INSERT INTO pages (type_id, title, content)';
$sql .= ' VALUES (:type_id, :title, :content)';
$params = [
    'type_id' => 1,
    'title'   => 'Named Parameters',
    'content' => 'Test with Named Parameters.',
$rows_added += $db->execute($sql, $params);

// Get the id of the last inserted row or sequence value
$last_id = $db->lastInsertId();

// Query for Multiple Records
// Returns an Array of Records (Associative Array for each Record).
$sql = 'SELECT * FROM pages';
$records = $db->query($sql);

// Query for one record. Returns an Associative Array or [null] if not found.
// Both [query()] and [queryOne()] support optional parameters when querying.
$sql = 'SELECT * FROM pages WHERE id = ?';
$params = [1];
$record = $db->queryOne($sql, $params);

// The [Database] class also contains additional functions such as
// [queryValue(), queryList() and querySets()] to simplify and reduce
// the amount code needed when working with databases.

Connect to a Database and run SQL Statements using PDO

// Connect to a Database using PHP Data Objects (PDO). This example uses
// SQLite with a temp in-memory db.
$dsn = 'sqlite::memory:';
$user = null;
$password = null;
$options = [
$pdo = new \PDO($dsn, $user, $password, $options);

// Create tables and test records.

$pdo->query('CREATE TABLE page_types (id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, page_type)');

$sql .= ' type_id, title, content)';

// This example uses a double-quotes for the string ["] because SQL strings
// include the single-quote character ['] for text.
$sql = "INSERT INTO page_types (id, page_type) VALUES (1, 'text/plain')";
$stmt = $pdo->query($sql);
$rows_added = $stmt->rowCount();

// This example uses a prepare statement with an array of parameters. This is
// recommended when for user input to prevent SQL Injection Attacks. The
// Question Mark [?] is the placeholder character to use in the SQL statement.
$sql = 'INSERT INTO page_types (id, page_type) VALUES (?, ?)';
$params = [2, 'text/html'];
$stmt = $pdo->prepare($sql);
$rows_added += $stmt->rowCount();

// Multiple records can be added (or updated, etc) in a loop
// using a prepared statement.
$sql = 'INSERT INTO pages (type_id, title, content) VALUES (?, ?, ?)';
$records = [
    [1, 'Text Test Page', 'This is a test.'],
    [2, 'HTML Test Page', '<h1>Test<h1><p>This is a test.</p>'],
$stmt = $pdo->prepare($sql);

foreach ($records as $record) {
    $rows_added += $stmt->rowCount();

// In addition to using [?] you can also use named parameters in the
// format of ":name". Named parameters can make the code easier to read.
$sql = 'INSERT INTO pages (type_id, title, content)';
$sql .= ' VALUES (:type_id, :title, :content)';
$params = [
    'type_id' => 1,
    'title'   => 'Named Parameters',
    'content' => 'Test with Named Parameters.',
$stmt = $pdo->prepare($sql);
$rows_added += $stmt->rowCount();

// Get the id of the last inserted row or sequence value
$last_id = $pdo->lastInsertId();

// Query for Multiple Records
// Returns an Array of Records (Associative Array for each Record).
$sql = 'SELECT * FROM pages';
$stmt = $pdo->query($sql);
$records = $stmt->fetchAll(\PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);

// Query for one record using parameters. Returns an Associative Array
// or [false] if not found.
$sql = 'SELECT * FROM pages WHERE id = ?';
$params = [1];
$stmt = $pdo->prepare($sql);
$record = $stmt->fetch(\PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);

// Functions [fetchAll()] and [fetch()] also support a number of options
// for the return format including Indexed-Arrays using [PDO::FETCH_NUM],
// Anonymous Objects using [PDO::FETCH_OBJ] and custom classes using

Connect to a Database

// FastSitePHP’s Database class or PHP's built-in PDO class can connect to
// different databases. FastSitePHP’s Database class provides a thin wrapper
// over PDO to reduce the amount of code needed when querying a database.

// Examples below show how to build connection strings and run a query for
// a number of different databases. If you download this site, the code below
// can be modified and tested for your environment; or simply copy what you
// need to your site or app.

// When specifying the hostname (Server Name), you can often specify just the
// server name (example: 'db-server') or the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN)
// (example 'db-server.example.com') based on how your network is setup.
// For example on an internal network simply using the server name will work
// but through VPN using the FQDN is often required.

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// MySQL
//   Basic Format:
//     "mysql:host={hostname};dbname={database}";
// This example also shows using the [MYSQL_ATTR_INIT_COMMAND]
// option to set the timezone to UTC when the connection is created.
// If you have a site or application that has users in multiple timezones or
// countries an application design that works well is to save all dates and
// times in UTC and then format based on the users selected timezone.
$dsn = 'mysql:host=localhost;dbname=wordpress;charset=utf8';
$user = 'root';
$password = 'wordpress';
$options = [
    \PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_INIT_COMMAND => "SET time_zone = '+00:00'",
$sql = 'SELECT table_schema, table_name';
$sql .= ' FROM information_schema.tables';
$sql .= " WHERE table_type = 'BASE TABLE'";

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Oracle
//   Format:
//      "oci:dbname=//{hostname}:{port-number}/{database}"
$dsn = 'oci:dbname=//server:1521/hr';
$user = 'sys';
$password = 'password';
$options = [];

// In addition to the standard format you can also specify a full TNS string
$tns .= '(HOST=server.example.com)(PORT=1521)))';
$tns .= '(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=dbname)))';
$dsn = 'oci:dbname=' . $tns;

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// SQL Server
$dsn = 'sqlsrv:Server=db-server;Database=DbName';
$user = 'sa';
$password = 'password';
$options = [];
$sql = 'SELECT SCHEMA_NAME(schema_id) AS schema_name, name FROM sys.tables';

// SQL Server (using ODBC)
// If the native SQL Server PDO driver is not installed and the
// PDO ODBC Driver is installed and a ODBC Connection is setup
// you could use this:
$dsn = 'odbc:DRIVER={SQL Server};SERVER=db-server;DATABASE=DbName;';

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// IBM (using ODBC)
// This example show a connection to an IBM DB2 or AS/400 through iSeries.
// ODBC Options will vary based on the driver installed and used.
$dsn = 'odbc:DRIVER={iSeries Access ODBC Driver};';
$dsn .= 'PORT=56789;';
$dsn .= 'SYSTEM=SYSTEM;';
$dsn .= 'PROTOCOL=TCPIP;';
$dsn .= 'UID=USER;';
$dsn .= 'PWD=PASSWORD;';
$user = null;
$password = null;
$options = [];
$sql .= ' FETCH FIRST 100 ROWS ONLY';

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// PostgreSQL
$dsn = 'pgsql:host=localhost;port=5432;dbname=dbname;';
$user = 'postgres';
$password = 'password';
$options = [];
$sql = 'SELECT table_schema, table_name';
$sql .= ' FROM information_schema.tables';
$sql .= " WHERE table_type = 'BASE TABLE'";

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// SQLite
//   Example using a file path:
//     'sqlite:/var/www/app_data/db.sqlite'
//     'sqlite:C:\inetpub\wwwroot\db.sqlite'
//   In-Memory Database:
//     'sqlite::memory:'
$dsn = 'sqlite:' . $file_path;
$user = null;
$password = null;
$options = [];
$sql = 'SELECT * FROM sqlite_master';

// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Persistent Connection Option
// Many PHP Database drivers support persistent connections which can allow
// for better performance.
$persistent = false;

// ============================================================================
// Connect using PHP Data Objects (PDO)
if ($persistent) {
    $options[\PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT] = true;
$pdo = new \PDO($dsn, $user, $password, $options);

// Query using PDO
$stmt = $pdo->query($sql);
$records = $stmt->fetchAll(\PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);

// =================================================================================
// Connect and Query using FastSitePHP's Database class.
// Only the DSN (Data Source Name) is a required parameter.
$db = new \FastSitePHP\Data\Database($dsn, $user, $password, $persistent, $options);
$records = $db->query($sql);

// =================================================================================
// In addition to FastSitePHP's Database class [OdbcDatabase] and [Db2Database]
// can also be used for supported enviroments, and especially for IBM Databases.
// When using the class [OdbcDatabase] the DSN will be the same as the PDO DSN
// excluding the 'odbc:' prefix.
$odbc = new OdbcDatabase($dsn, $user, $password, $persistent, $options);
$db2  = new Db2Database($dsn, $user, $password, $persistent, $options);

// ============================================================================
// Lazy Loading with FastSitePHP
// FastSitePHP’s Application object has a function [lazyLoad()] which accepts
// a property name and callback function. It creates the object as a property
// of the app only if used. This is ideal for working with sites where some
// pages connect to a database and some pages do not, or if you have a site
// that connects to multiple databases but not all pages use each database.
$app->lazyLoad('db', function() use ($dsn, $user, $password) {
    return new \FastSitePHP\Data\Database($dsn, $user, $password);

// Query for records. The database gets connected to here only when first used.
$records = $app->db->query($sql);

// ============================================================================
// To obtain a list of available drivers on the computer call [phpinfo()]
// and view the result or call the following function to get an array of
// driver names. A full list of PDO Drivers can be found at:
//   http://php.net/manual/en/pdo.drivers.php
// If you need a driver and it is not available or enabled on your server
// they are generally easy to install and enable.
$drivers = \PDO::getAvailableDrivers();

Validating User Input

// For many apps validating client side (webpage or app) provides instant
// feedback to users and limits need for extra web request, however users
// can bypass validation by using DevTools or other methods so for data
// that needs to be validated using server-side validation is important.

// FastSitePHP provides a class that allows for many rules to be easily
// defined and run against an object (or Associative Array/Dictionary).

// Common rules can simply be copied from HTML Input controls.

// HTML Example:
    <input name="name" title="Name" required>
    <input name="age" title="Age" required min="13" max="99">
    <input name="phone" title="Phone" pattern="[0-9]{3}-[0-9]{3}-[0-9]{4}">

// FastSitePHP Code to Validate Form Post using the above HTML.
// Form Post Fields come in the PHP Superglobal array [$_POST]
// and it can simply be passed to the [Validator] class.
$v = new \FastSitePHP\Data\Validator();
    // Field,  Title,   Rules
    ['name',  'Name',  'required'],
    ['age',   'Age',   'required min="13" max="99"'],
    ['phone', 'Phone', 'pattern="[0-9]{3}-[0-9]{3}-[0-9]{4}"'],
list($errors, $fields) = $v->validate($_POST);
if ($errors) {
    // Error Logic
    // [$errors] returns an array of error messages for the end user
    // [$fields] returns an array of unique fields that had an error
    // along with an array of error messages for each field.
    // Fields can be used by a client app to highlight form fields, etc.

// In addition to using strings for the rules you can also use arrays.
// This can provide better performance if you have a high traffic site,
// however it runs very fast either way.
$v = new \FastSitePHP\Data\Validator();
    ['name',  'Name',  ['required' => true]],
    ['age',   'Age',   [
        'required' => true,
        'min' => '13',
        'max' => '99',
    ['phone', 'Phone', ['pattern' => '[0-9]{3}-[0-9]{3}-[0-9]{4}']],

// The validator class supports a number of HTML5 rules along
// with some custom rules:
//     'exists', 'required', 'type', 'minlength', 'maxlength',
//     'length', 'min', 'max', 'pattern', 'list',

// The [type] rule supports a number of HTML5 data types along
// with many custom data types:
//      'text', 'password', 'tel', 'number', 'range', 'date',
//      'time', 'datetime', 'datetime-local', 'email', 'url',
//      'unicode-email', 'int', 'float', 'json', 'base64',
//      'base64url', 'xml', 'bool', 'timezone', 'ip', 'ipv4',
//      'ipv6', 'cidr', 'cidr-ipv4', 'cidr-ipv6',

// In addition to standard rules custom rules can be defined using
// callback functions that return true/false or a custom error
// message string:
        ['site_user',     'Site User', 'check-user required'],
        ['site_password', 'Password',  'check-password required'],
    ->customRule('check-user', function($value) {
        return ($value === 'admin');
    ->customRule('check-password', function($value) {
        return ($value === 'secret' ? true : 'Invalid Password');

list($errors, $fields) = $v->validate($_POST);

Using the HTTP Client

// The HttpClient can be used to simplify communication with other Web Services,
// HTTP API’s, and works great for calling and returning the result of local
// services – for example an AI/ML (Artificial Intelligence / Machine Learning)
// Service written in Python with TensorFlow or scikit-learn.

// Perform a simple HTTP GET Request and check the result
$res = \FastSitePHP\Net\HttpClient::get($url);
if ($res->error) {
    // An error would be returned in the event of a major failure such as
    // a timeout or SSL Cert Error. A 404 or 500 Response from the server
    // would be handled by checking the [status_code].
    $error = $res->error;
} else {
    $status_code = $res->status_code; // 200, 404, 500, etc
    $headers = $res->headers; // Array of Response Headers
    $content = $res->content; // Response Content as a String - HTML, Text, etc
    $info = $res->info; // Array of Info such as Time Stats

// Perform an HTTP GET Request and read the JSON Result. If the Response
// Content-Type is 'application/json' then [$res->json] will contain an array
// otherwise null. Request Headers can be passed an optional paramater.
$headers = [
    'X-API-Key' => 'ab82050cf5907934fa1d0f6f66284642a01d1ba2280656870c',
    'X-Custom-Header' => 'Test',
$res_json = \FastSitePHP\Net\HttpClient::get($url, $headers);
$json = $res->json;
$text = $res->content;

// Submit a HTTP POST Request as JSON and also as a Form.
// Data can be either an Array or Object and Headers are optional.
$data = [
    'text' => 'test',
    'num' => 123,
$res_post = \FastSitePHP\Net\HttpClient::postJson($url, $data, $headers);
$res_form = \FastSitePHP\Net\HttpClient::postForm($url, $data);

// When using PHP 5.5 or later 'multipart/form-data' Form Posts are supported
// with the PHP built-in class [CURLFile]:
$data = [
    'field1' => 'test',
    'file' => new \CURLFile($file_path),

// Save the Response Content as a File Download
// Just like [postJson()] and [postForm()] Request Headers are optional.
$res_file = \FastSitePHP\Net\HttpClient::downloadFile($url, $save_path, $headers);
$saved_path = $res_file->content;

// The above code demo shows the 4 helper static functions [get(), postJson(),
// postForm(), and downloadFile()], additional options are available when using
// the HttpClient as an object with the [request()] method.

// Submit a PUT Request with a file as the Request Body
$http = new \FastSitePHP\Net\HttpClient();
$res_put = $http->request($url, [
    'method' => 'PUT',
    'headers' => $headers,
    'send_file' => $file_path,

GraphQL Service using HttpClient

// GraphQL is a popular technology for developing API's. It has been ported to
// many languages including PHP, however the reference implementation, the most
// commonly used version, and also high in performance is GraphQL with NodeJS
// and Express. This route can be copied or modified to allow GraphQL from PHP
// using any GraphQL service on localhost or from another URL.
$app->route('/graphql', function() {
    try {
        $url = 'http://localhost:4000/graphql';

        // If an 'Authorization' Request Header was
        // sent then pass it to the GraphQL Service.
        $req = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Request();
        $auth = $req->header('Authorization');
        $headers = ($auth === null ? null : ['Authorization' => $auth]);

        // Submit GraphQL Request
        if ($req->method() === 'GET') {
            $url .= '?query=' . urlencode($req->queryString('query'));
            $url .= '&variables=' . urlencode($req->queryString('variables'));
            $url .= '&operationName=' . urlencode($req->queryString('operationName'));
            $res = \FastSitePHP\Net\HttpClient::get($url, $headers);
        } else {
            $res = \FastSitePHP\Net\HttpClient::postJson(

        // Check Response, an error typically would occur not for data
        // errors but rather HTTP errors (i.e.: If the service is down).
        if ($res->error) {
            throw new \Exception($res->error);

        // Return Object for JSON Response
        return $res->json;
    } catch (\Exception $e) {
        // Return unexpected error as a 200 response
        // using standard error format used by GraphQL.
        return [
            'errors' => [
                ['message' => $e->getMessage()]
})->filter(function() use ($app) {
    // Use CORS to allow web pages to access this service from any host (URL)
    if (isset($_SERVER['HTTP_ORIGIN']) && $_SERVER['HTTP_ORIGIN'] !== 'null') {
            'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' => $_SERVER['HTTP_ORIGIN'],
            'Access-Control-Allow-Headers' => 'Authorization, Content-Type',
            'Access-Control-Allow-Credentials' => 'true',
    } else {

Send an Email through an SMTP Server

// Define Email Settings
$from = 'noreply@example.com';
$to = 'user.name@example.com';
$subject = 'Email Test from FastSitePHP at ' . date(DATE_RFC2822);
$body = '<h1>Email Title</h1><p style="color:blue;">This is a test.</p>';

// Create an Email Object
$email = new \FastSitePHP\Net\Email($from, $to, $subject, $body);

// The Email Class also has many additional settings and can be created
// without specifying any parameters. When setting [From] or [Reply-To]
// email addresses one of the following formats can be used:
//   String: 'Email Address'
//   Array: ['Email', 'Name']
// And when specifying who to send email to any of the formats can be used:
//   String 'Email Address'
//   Array: ['Email', 'Name']
//   Array: ['Email Address 1', 'Email Address 2', '...']
$email = new \FastSitePHP\Net\Email();
    ->from(['noreply@example.com', 'No Reply'])
    ->to(['email1@example.com', 'email2@example.com'])
    ->header('X-Transaction-ID', '123abc');

// File attachements are also supported:
// $email->attachFile($file_path);

// SMTP Servers that support Unicode Emails can use [allowUnicodeEmails(true)].
// When used the SMTP Client sends a SMTPUTF8 option if the server supports it.
// $email->allowUnicodeEmails(true)->from('无回复@example.com');

// SMTP Settings
$host = 'smtp.example.com';
$port = 25;
$auth_user = null;
$auth_pass = null;

// Create SMTP Client and Send Email.
// Once the variable for the SMTP Client is no longer used or set to null
// then it automatically sends a 'QUIT' command to the SMTP Server and closes
// the connection.
$smtp = new \FastSitePHP\Net\SmtpClient($host, $port);
if ($auth_user !== null) {
    $smtp->auth($auth_user, $auth_pass);
$smtp = null;

// Additional options can be specified for timeout (in seconds) and for logging
$timeout = 2;
$debug_callback = function($message) {
    echo '[' . date('H:i:s') . '] ' . trim($message) . "\n";

// The [SmtpClient] Class also supports an easy to use API for communicating
// with SMTP Servers. In this example Gmail is used and several commands are
// performed. Messages are logged to the [$debug_callback] function.
$host = 'smtp.gmail.com';
$port = 587;
$smtp2 = new \FastSitePHP\Net\SmtpClient($host, $port, $timeout, $debug_callback);

// One or more emails can also be sent using App Config Values or System
// Enviroment Variables. This type of setup can be used to prevent sensitive
// authentication info from being saved with the main code logic.
$app->config['SMTP_HOST'] = $host;
$app->config['SMTP_PORT'] = $port;
$app->config['SMTP_TIMEOUT'] = $timeout;
$app->config['SMTP_USER'] = $auth_user;
$app->config['SMTP_PASSWORD'] = $auth_pass;


Search for Files and Directories (Folders)

// Create a FileSystem Search Object
$search = new \FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Search();

// For basic usage specify a root directory with the [dir()] command and then
// call either [files()] or [dirs()]. An array of matching names will be returned.
$files = $search->dir($dir_path)->files();

// [all()] can be used to return both directories and files
list($dirs, $files) = $search->dir($dir_path)->all();

// Functions are chainable so breaking them up
// one per line can make the code easier to read.
$dirs = $search

// URL lists can also be generated from matching files.
$url_root = 'http://www.example.com/';
$urls = $search

// A number of different criteria functions exist and can be used to filter
// the results. In this example a recursive search is used to find PHP files
// that contain the text 'FileSystem'. When a recursive search is used the
// full file paths are returned unless [includeRoot(false)] is set.
// See documentation and examples for all functions.
$files = $search

File System Sync

// Create a FileSystem Sync Object
$sync = new FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Sync();

// Sync files and directories (folders) from [dirFrom(path)] to [dirTo(path)].
// The sync is recursive so all files and directories are synced in all
// sub-directories. Required functions are [dirFrom, dirTo, and sync].
// To view the results call [printResults()] after calling [sync()].
// All options with defaults are shown below.
    ->summaryTitle('File System Sync Results')
    ->dryRun(false) // Set to [true] for testing

Convert Markdown to HTML using PHP

// FastSitePHP includes the high performance library Parsedown for
// converting Markdown format to HTML.

// Make sure to load the vendor autoloader
require '../../../vendor/autoload.php';

// Create Parsedown Object
$Parsedown = new Parsedown();

// Convert to HTML from a Text String
$html = $Parsedown->text('Hello **FastSitePHP**!');

// Read a File and convert to HTML
$file_path = __DIR__ . '/views/example.md';
$md = file_get_contents($file_path);
$html = $Parsedown->text($md);


// FastSitePHP includes two logging classes that implement the widely used
// [Psr\Log] Interface.

// Create a file logger. Log messages are appended and the file is created
// when the first message is added.
$file = __DIR__ . '/log.txt';
$file_logger = new \FastSitePHP\Data\Log\FileLogger($file);

// Create an HTML Logger
// This class can be used for temporary development logs because it outputs an
// HTML table of logged messages after the response is sent or depending on
// options can be used to replace the original response. The parameter
// [$replace_response] is optional.
$replace_response = false;
$html_logger = new \FastSitePHP\Data\Log\HtmlLogger($app, $replace_response);

// Log messages using one of the following functions:
//     emergency(), alert(), critical(), error(),
//     warning(), notice(), info(), debug()
$file_logger->info('This is a Test.');
$html_logger->error('Application Test');

// Additionally data can be passed to the message with placeholders
$html_logger->info('User {name} created', [
    'name' => 'Admin'

// The date format can be any valid value for the PHP function [date()].
// Default is [\DateTime::ISO8601].
$file_logger->date_format = 'Y-m-d H:i:s';

// For the file logger the output format can be controlled by properties.
// Default Format:
//     '{date} {level} - {message}{line_break}';
// Line Breaks default based on the OS:
//     "\r\n" - Windows
//     "\n"   - Other OS's
$file_logger->log_format = '[{level}] {message}{line_break}';
$file_logger->line_break = '^^';

// You can also customize the HTML Logger with your own template:
// $html_logger->template_file = 'YOUR_TEMPLATE.php';

Get Network and Server Info

// Create a Networking Config Object
$config = new \FastSitePHP\Net\Config();

// Get a (fqdn) 'fully-qualified domain name' for the server ['server.example.com']
$host = $config->fqdn();

// Get the Network IPv4 Address for the computer or server
$ip = $config->networkIp();

// Get a list of all IPv4 Addresses for the computer or server
$ip_list = $config->networkIpList();

// Get a text string of info from the server using one of the following commands:
// - Linux / Unix = [ip addr] or [ifconfig]
// - Mac          = [ifconfig]
// - Windows      = [ipconfig]
$info = $config->networkInfo();

// Convert the Network Info String to an Object
$info = $config->parseNetworkInfo($info);

Get Environment and System Info

// Create an Environment System Object
$sys = new \FastSitePHP\Environment\System();

// Get an array of basic information related to the Operating System
// [ 'OS Type', 'Version Info', 'Release Version', 'Host Name', 'CPU Type' ]
$os_info = $sys->osVersionInfo();

// Get a text string of detailed system info using one of the following commands:
// - Linux   = File: '/etc/os-release'
// - FreeBSD = uname -mrs
// - IBM AIX = uname -a
// - Mac     = system_profiler SPSoftwareDataType SPHardwareDataType
// - Windows = ver
$info = $sys->systemInfo();

// Get an array of information related to free, used, and total space for
// a filesystem drive or disk partition. This function allows for specific
// drives or partitions to be specified.
// - *nix    = $sys->diskSpace('/dev/disk0')
// - Windows = $sys->diskSpace('C:')
$disk_space = $sys->diskSpace();

// Windows only function that returns an array of drive letters
// mapped to the server. Returns an empty array for other OS's.
$mapped_drives = $sys->mappedDrives();

Use a [.env] File

// Loads environment variables from a [.env] file into [getenv()] and [$_ENV].
// FastSitePHP's DotEnv is a port of the Node package [dotenv] so the same
// syntax used by node projects is supported.
$vars = \FastSitePHP\Environment\DotEnv::load($dir);

// Use variables from the file after reading it. Variables are only set
// from the file if they do not already exist.
$value = getenv('DB_CONNECTION');
$value = $_ENV['DB_CONNECTION'];

// Load a file using [.env] file format. The full path of the file is
// specified so it can be named anything.
$vars = \FastSitePHP\Environment\DotEnv::loadFile($file_path);

// Optionally require keys to exist in the file.
$required_vars = ['DB_ORACLE', 'DB_SQL_SERVER'];
$vars = \FastSitePHP\Environment\DotEnv::load($dir, $required_vars);

Security - Encrypt and Decrypt Data

// Generate a Key for Encryption.
// The key is a long hex string of secure random bytes.
// The key would typically be saved with your app or in config.
$crypto = new \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto\Encryption();
$key = $crypto->generateKey();

// Encrypt and Decrypt using the Crypto Helper Class with Config Settings.
// Data of different data types can be encrypted and returned in the
// same format (string, int, object, etc).
$app->config['ENCRYPTION_KEY'] = $key;
$encrypted_text = \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto::encrypt($data);
$decrypted_data = \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto::decrypt($encrypted_text);

// Encrypt and Decrypt using the Encryption Class. This class
// provides many additional options that are not in the helper class.
$encrypted_text = $crypto->encrypt($data, $key);
$decrypted_data = $crypto->decrypt($encrypted_text, $key);

Security - Encrypt and Decrypt a File

// FastSitePHP allows for fast authenticated encryption of any size file
// (even large files that are many gigs in size). The code used for encryption
// is compatible with shell commands and a Bash Script [encrypt.sh] that works
// on Linux and Unix Computers. The Bash Script can be downloaded from this site,
// and will work on most Linux OS's without having to install anything.

// Generate a Key for Encryption
$crypto = new \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto\FileEncryption();
$key = $crypto->generateKey();

// Build file paths of files to save based on the original name
$enc_file = $file_path . '.enc';
$output_file = $enc_file . '.decrypted';

// Encrypt and Decrypt using the Crypto Helper Class with Config Settings.
// A [FileEncryption] class also exists with additional options.
$app->config['ENCRYPTION_KEY'] = $key;
\FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto::encryptFile($file_path, $enc_file);
\FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto::decryptFile($enc_file, $output_file);

Security - Encode and Decode a JSON Web Token (JWT)

// The JWT Payload can be either an Object or an Array (Dictionary).
$payload = [
    'User' => 'John Doe',
    'Roles' => ['Admin', 'SQL Editor']

// Generate a Key for Encoding (Signing).
// The key is a long hex string of secure random bytes.
// The key would typically be saved with your app or in config.
$jwt = new \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto\JWT();
$key = $jwt->generateKey();

// Encode and Decode JWT with the Crypto Helper Class with Config Settings.
// When using the default parameters with the helper class the data has a
// 1-hour timeout.
$app->config['JWT_KEY'] = $key;
$token = \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto::encodeJWT($payload);
$data  = \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto::decodeJWT($token);

// Encode (Sign) and Decode (Verify) using the JWT Class. When using
// default settings with the JWT Class, no timeout is specified, all
// claims are validated, and a secure key is required.
$token = $jwt->encode($payload, $key);
$data  = $jwt->decode($token, $key);

// Add Claims to the Payload and use an Insecure Key for Compatibility
// with other sites (Often online demos of JWT are shown using simple
// passwords for the key). By default keys are required to be secure
// with proper length and in either Base64 or Hex format.

$payload = $jwt->addClaim($payload, 'exp', '+10 minutes');
$payload = $jwt->addClaim($payload, 'iss', 'example.com');


$insecure_key = 'password123';
$token = $jwt->encode($payload, $insecure_key);
$data  = $jwt->decode($token, $insecure_key);

Security - Encode and Decode JWT using RSA

// The JWT Payload can be either an Object or an Array (Dictionary).
$payload = new \stdClass;
$payload->User = 'John Doe';
$payload->Roles = ['Admin', 'SQL Editor'];

// Create JWT Class, specify 'RS256' Algoritm, and generate Key Pair
$jwt = new \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto\JWT();

list($private_key, $public_key) = $jwt->generateKey();

// Encode (Sign) and Decode (Verify)
$token = $jwt->encode($payload, $private_key);
$data  = $jwt->decode($token, $public_key);

Security - Sign and Verify Data

// Using the [SignedData] is similar in concept to using JWT.
// A client can read the data but not modify it.

// Generate a Key for Signing.
// The key is a long hex string of secure random bytes.
// The key would typically be saved with your app or in config.
$csd = new \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto\SignedData();
$key = $csd->generateKey();

// Sign and Verify using the Crypto Helper Class with Config Settings.
// When using the default parameters with the helper class the data has
// a 1-hour timeout. Data of different data types can be signed and
// verified to the original format (string, int, object, etc).
$app->config['SIGNING_KEY'] = $key;
$signed_text   = \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto::sign($data);
$verified_data = \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto::verify($signed_text);

// Sign and Verify using the SignedData Class. The SignedData Class
// allows for additional options and doesn't use config settings.
// The parameter [$expire_time] is optional.
$expire_time   = '+20 minutes';
$signed_text   = $csd->sign($data, $key, $expire_time);
$verified_data = $csd->verify($signed_text, $key);

Security - Hash and Verify Passwords

// Saving User Passwords using a one-way hashing function is important for
// secure applications. FastSitePHP’s Password class provides support for
// bcrypt (default) and Argon2.

// Example of a User Password, this value should not be saved to a database
$password = 'Password123';

// Create a Password Object
$pw = new \FastSitePHP\Security\Password();

// Hash the Password, this will create hash text that looks like this:
//   '$2y$10$cDpu8TnONBhpBFPEKTTccu/mYhSppqNLDNCfOYLfBWI3K/FzFgC2y'
// The value will change everytime and is safe to save to a database.
$hash = $pw->hash($password);

// Verify a Password - returns [true] or [false]
$verified = $pw->verify($password, $hash);

// Create a randomly generated password that is 12 characters in length
// and contains the following:
//   4 Uppercase Letters (A - Z)
//   4 Lowercase Letters (a - z)
//   2 Digits (0 - 9)
//   2 Special Characters (~, !, @, #, $, %, ^, &, *, ?, -, _)
$strong_password = $pw->generate();

// Specify a different BCrypt Cost of 12 instead of the default value 10
$hash2 = $pw->hash($password);
$verified2 = $pw->verify($password, $hash2);

// When using PHP 7.2 or later Argon2 can be used
if (PHP_VERSION_ID >= 70200) {
    $argon_hash = $pw->hash($password);
    $argon_verified = $pw->verify($password, $argon_hash);

Security - Generate a new RSA Key Pair

// Generate a new RSA Key Pair
$key_pair = \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto\PublicKey::generateRsaKeyPair();
list($private_key, $public_key) = $key_pair;

// Generate a new 3072-Bit RSA Key
$bits = 3072;
$key_pair = \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto\PublicKey::generateRsaKeyPair($bits);
list($private_key2, $public_key2) = $key_pair;

Generate a string of random bytes

// Generate cryptographically secure pseudo-random bytes that
// are suitable for cryptographic use and secure applications.
$bytes = \FastSitePHP\Security\Crypto\Random::bytes(32);

// Convert the bytes to another format:
$hex_bytes = bin2hex($bytes);
$base64_bytes = base64_encode($bytes);

// When using PHP 7 or newer you can simply call [random_bytes()]
$bytes = random_bytes(32);

Security - CSRF using Session

// One call to a static function creates a token on GET Requests
// and validates it with Requests POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.
// If there is an error with the token then an exception is
// thrown which will cause 500 response with the error page.

// The token is assigned a locals value in the Application Object
$token = $app->locals['csrf_token'];

// This allows it to be used with templating code.
// Tokens are validated from [setup()] but not automatically added
// to forms so they must be added through templating or by code.
// <meta name="X-CSRF-Token" content="{{ $csrf_token }}">
// <input name="X-CSRF-Token" value="{{ $csrf_token }}">

// A good place to call this function is on route filters
// of pages that use authentication. Example:

// Create a filter function to assign to multiple routes
$csrf_session = function() use ($app) {

// Use the function when defining a route
$app->get('/form', function() use ($app) {
    return $app->render('form.php');

Security - Stateless CSRF

// Stateless CSRF Tokens are not stored in Session but rather use a crypto
// keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC) to create and verify the token.

// A secure secret key is required.
// The key would typically be saved with your app or in config.
$key = \FastSitePHP\Security\Web\CsrfStateless::generateKey();

// To use the Key it must be saved to either a config value or
// an environment variable before calling [setup()].
$app->config['CSRF_KEY'] = $key;
// putenv("CSRF_KEY=${key}");

// A unique identifier for the user is also required. This doesn't have
// to be secret and can be a simple as an numeric field in a database.
$user_id = 1;

// Setup and validate stateless CSRF Tokens
\FastSitePHP\Security\Web\CsrfStateless::setup($app, $user_id);

// Optionally add a timeout, this CSRF token will expire after 5 minutes
$expire_time = '+5 minutes';
\FastSitePHP\Security\Web\CsrfStateless::setup($app, $user_id, $expire_time);

// The same logic is used when using the [CsrfSession] class so
// the token is assigned a locals value in the Application Object
// which allows for it to be used with templating code.
$token = $app->locals['csrf_token'];
// <meta name="X-CSRF-Token" content="{{ $csrf_token }}">
// <input name="X-CSRF-Token" value="{{ $csrf_token }}">

// Also just like [CsrfSession] a good place to call [setup()]
// is on route filter functions.
$csrf = function() use ($app, $user_id) {
    \FastSitePHP\Security\Web\CsrfStateless::setup($app, $user_id);

$app->get('/form', function() use ($app) {
    return $app->render('form.php');

IP Addresses and Validation

// With FastSitePHP you can easily compare an IP Address to an accepted range
// of IP’s using CIDR Notation. CIDR Notation (Classless Inter-Domain Routing)
// is a compact representation of an IP address and its associated routing
// prefix. It is used regularly when working with digital networks and often
// needed for websites when handling IP Addresses for security.

// Check if IP Address '' is in the '' range
// Returns [true]
$matches = \FastSitePHP\Net\IP::cidr('', '');

// Check if IP Address '' is in the '' range
// Returns [false]
$matches2 = \FastSitePHP\Net\IP::cidr('', '');

// IPv6 is also supported
$matches3 = \FastSitePHP\Net\IP::cidr('fe80::/10', 'fe80::b091:1117:497a:9dc1');

// Get an array of Private Network Addresses in CIDR Notation
//   [
//     '',      // IPv4 localhost
//     '',       // IPv4 Private Network, RFC1918 24-bit block
//     '',    // IPv4 Private Network, RFC1918 20-bit block
//     '',   // IPv4 Private Network, RFC1918 16-bit block
//     '',   // IPv4 local-link
//     '::1/128',          // IPv6 localhost
//     'fc00::/7',         // IPv6 Unique local address (Private Network)
//     'fe80::/10',        // IPv6 local-link
//   ]
$private_addr = \FastSitePHP\Net\IP::privateNetworkAddresses();

// The array from [privateNetworkAddresses()] can be used with the [cidr()]
// function to check if an IP address is from a private network or from the
// public internet. The [cidr()] function accepts the CIDR Parameter as
// either an array or a string.
$matches4 = \FastSitePHP\Net\IP::cidr($private_addr, '');

// Get Info about a CIDR string when calling [cidr()] with only 1 parameter.
// This example returns the following:
//   [
//     'CIDR_Notation' => '',
//     'Address_Type' => 'IPv4',
//     'IP_Address' => '',
//     'Subnet_Mask' => '',
//     'Subnet_Mask_Bits' => 24,
//     'Cisco_Wildcard' => '',
//     'Network_Address' => '',
//     'Broadcast' => '',
//     'Network_Range_First_IP' => '',
//     'Network_Range_Last_IP' => '',
//     'Usable_Range_First_IP' => '',
//     'Usable_Range_Last_IP' => '',
//     'Addresses_in_Network' => 256,
//     'Usable_Addresses_in_Network' => 254,
//  ]
$info = \FastSitePHP\Net\IP::cidr('');

// Example of CIDR Info when using IPv6:
//   [
//     'CIDR_Notation' => 'fe80::b091:1117:497a:9dc1/48',
//     'Address_Type' => 'IPv6',
//     'IP_Address' => 'fe80::b091:1117:497a:9dc1',
//     'Subnet_Mask' => 'ffff:ffff:ffff::',
//     'Subnet_Mask_Bits' => 48,
//     'Network_Address' => 'fe80::',
//     'Network_Range_First_IP' => 'fe80::',
//     'Network_Range_Last_IP' => 'fe80::ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff',
//     'Addresses_in_Network' => '1208925819614629174706176',
//   ]
$info_ip6 = \FastSitePHP\Net\IP::cidr('fe80::b091:1117:497a:9dc1/48');

File System Security

// The FileSystem Security Class contains functions for validating files.

// Prevent Path Traversal Attacks by verifying if a file name exists in a
// specified directory. Path Traversal Attacks can happen if a user is
// allowed to specify a file on a file system through input and uses a
// pattern such as '/../' to obtain files from another directory.

// Examples:

// Assume both files exist and would return [true] from built-in function
// [is_file()]. [false] would be returned for the 2nd file when using
// [Security::dirContainsFile()].
$file1 = 'user_image.jpg';
$file2 = '../../index.php';
$file_exists_1 = \FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Security::dirContainsFile($dir, $file1);
$file_exists_2 = \FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Security::dirContainsFile($dir, $file2);

// The function [dirContainsFile()] only allows for files directly under the root
// folder so another function exists to search sub-directories [dirContainsPath()].
$path1 = 'icons/clipboard.svg'; // Returns [true]
$path2 = '../../app/index.php'; // Returns [false]
$path_exists_1 = \FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Security::dirContainsPath($dir, $path1);
$path_exists_2 = \FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Security::dirContainsPath($dir, $path2);

// [dirContainsPath()] contains an optional 3rd parameter [$type] which defaults
// to 'file' and allows for one of the following options ['file', 'dir', 'all'].
$path3 = 'icons';
$exists = \FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Security::dirContainsPath($dir, $path3, 'dir');

// [dirContainsDir()] can be used to check directories/folders.
$dir1 = 'icons';
$dir2 = '../../app';
$dir_exists_1 = \FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Security::dirContainsDir($dir, $file1);
$dir_exists_2 = \FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Security::dirContainsDir($dir, $file2);

// Validate Image Files
// The [fileIsValidImage()] function can be used to verify if image files
// created from user input are valid. For example a malicious user may try
// to rename a PHP script or executable file as an image and upload it to
// a site. Returns [true] if an image file [jpg, gif, png, webp, svg]
// is valid and the file's extension matches the image type.
$is_image = \FastSitePHP\FileSystem\Security::fileIsValidImage($image_file);

Security - Rate Limiting

// Rate Limit Class
$rate_limit = new \FastSitePHP\Security\Web\RateLimit();

// Using the RateLimit class requires an instance of
// [\FastSitePHP\Data\KeyValue\StorageInterface].
// In this example SQLite is used. When multiple servers are used behind
// a load balancer an in-memory cache db such as Redis can be used.
$file_path = sys_get_temp_dir() . '/ratelimit-cache.sqlite';
$storage = new \FastSitePHP\Data\KeyValue\SqliteStorage($file_path);

// There are 2 required options [storage] and [id].
// [id] represents the user - IP Address, User ID, etc.
// [max_allowed] and [duration] will commonly be used and represent
// the rate at which the event is allowed. If not specified then a
// default of 1 is used which allows for 1 request per second.
$options = [
    'max_allowed' => 1, // Requests, Events, etc
    'duration' => 1, // In seconds
    'storage' => $storage,
    'id' => $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'],

// Check the Request
list($allowed, $headers) = $rate_limit->allow($options);
// $allowed = bool
// $headers = Array of headers that can be used for logic
//            or sent with the response

// One thing to be aware of when filtering by IP is that many users can have
// the same IP if they are accessing your site from the same office or location.

// Option examples:

// Limit to 10 requests every 20 seconds
$options = [ 'max_allowed' => 10, 'duration' => 20, ];

// Limit to 2 requests per minute
$options = [ 'max_allowed' => 2, 'duration' => 60, ];

// Limit to 2 requests per day
$options = [ 'max_allowed' => 10, 'duration' => (60 * 60 * 24), ];

// If using the [RateLimit] class for multiple
// uses then you need to specify an optional key.
$options = [ 'key' => 'messages-sent' ];
$options = [ 'key' => 'accounts-created' ];

// The [RateLimit] class allows for different rate limiting algorithms;
// the default is 'fixed-window-counter' which puts a fixed amount on
// the number of requests for the given duration, but allows for bursts.
// The 'token-bucket' allows for rate limiting at a timed rate however
// it can allow for a higher number requests than the specified [max_allowed].
// For basic usage with a small number of [max_allowed] such as
// "1 request per second" they will behave the same, however if specifying
// a larger number such as "10 requests per 20 seconds" then there will
// be a difference so if you are using rate limiting for web requests with
// a larger number you may want to compare the differences using example code
// and see related links in the API docs.
$options = [ 'algo' => 'fixed-window-counter' ];
$options = [ 'algo' => 'token-bucket' ];

// The [filterRequest()] function can be used to filter the request.
// When used if the user's rate limit is reached then a 429 [Too Many Requests]
// response is sent and [exit()] is called to stop the script execution.
$filter_request = function() use ($app, $storage) {
    // Get User IP (example if using a load-balancer)
    $req = new \FastSitePHP\Web\Request();
    $user_ip = $req->clientIp('from proxy');

    // Check rate
    $rate_limit = new \FastSitePHP\Security\Web\RateLimit();
    $rate_limit->filterRequest($app, [
        'storage' => $storage,
        'id' => $user_ip,
$app->get('/api', function() {})->filter($filter_request);

// When using [filterRequest()] the following Response Headers can sent
// to the client depending on which options are used:
//   Retry-After            Standard Header
//   X-RateLimit-Limit      Human readable description of the rate limit
//   X-RateLimit-Remaining  Requests allowed for the given time frame
//   X-RateLimit-Reset      Unix Timestamp for the limit to reset

Open and Edit Images Files

// Use the Media Image Class to open an image. If the image is invalid or the
// file extension doesn't match the file type then an exception will be thrown.
// Supported file extensions = [jpg, jpeg, gif, png, webp]
$img = new \FastSitePHP\Media\Image();

// Generate a Thumbnail or Resize the Image to a specified max width and height.
// When both width and height are specified the image will be sized to the
// smaller of the two values so it fits. If only width or only height are
// specified then image will be sized proportionally to the value.
$max_width = 200; // Pixels
$max_height = 200;
$img->resize($max_width, $max_height);

// Images can also be cropped to a specific dimension.
// This can be used with JavaScript or App cropping libraries to allow users
// to generate thumbnails from a full uploaded image. For example allow
// a user to crop an uploaded image to a profile thumbnail.
$left = 50;
$top = 40;
$width = 120;
$height = 80;
$target_width = $width * 2; // Optional
$target_height = $height * 2; // Optional
$img->crop($left, $top, $width, $height, $target_width, $target_height);

// Images can be rotated which is useful for sites that allow users to upload
// images because images can often upload with incorrect rotation depending on
// the mobile device or a user may simply want to change the rotation.
$degrees = 180;

// Save Quality (0 to 100) can be specified when saving JPG or WEBP images.
// And Compression-Level (0 to 9) can be specified when saving PNG files.
$img->saveQuality(90);   // Default Quality
$img->pngCompression(6); // Default Compression-Level

// Overwrite an existing image by simply calling [save()] without
// a path or save to a new file by specifying a full file path.

// Optionally close the image to free memory when finished working with it.
// This happens automatically when the variable is no longer used.

Handle Language Translations for a Site or App

// FastSitePHP provides an easy to use Internationalization (i18n) API for
// sites and apps that need to support multiple languages. The code is
// structured but minimal in size so if you have different translation needs
// you can simply copy and modify the class.

// Translations are saved as JSON files in the same directory using the name
// format of “{name}.{lang}.json”. An optional main file named “_.{lang}.json”
// if found will loaded first. The main file “_” is useful for storing key
// translations such as menus, page headers, page footers, etc.

// An optional fallback language can be specified so that missing translations
// default to another language. This allows partially translated sites to use
// this API.

// Since the API is simple and easy to use there are only two functions to call:
// [langFile()] and [textFile()].

// Example Files:
//     _.en.json
//     _.es.json
//     header.en.json
//     header.es.json
//     about.en.json

// Using this code the above files will be loaded in the order listed.
$app->config['I18N_DIR'] = __DIR__ . '/i18n';
$app->config['I18N_FALLBACK_LANG'] = 'en';

\FastSitePHP\Lang\I18N::langFile('header', 'es');
\FastSitePHP\Lang\I18N::langFile('about', 'es');

// Typical usage is allowed for an app to load a language
// file based on the Requested URL:
$app->get('/:lang/about', function($lang) {
    \FastSitePHP\Lang\I18N::langFile('about', $lang);

// [setup()] can be called for each request to make sure
// that a language file is always loaded for template rendering when
// [$app->render()] is called.
// This is useful if your site uses PHP or other templates for rendering
// and expects the [i18n] default file to always be available. For example
// an unexpected error or call to [$app->pageNotFound()] can trigger a
// template to be rendered.

// Loaded translations are set to the app property ($app->locals['i18n'])
// so that they can be used with template rendering and the calling page.

// When using a URL format of [https://www.example.com/{lang}/{pages}]
// and a fallback language the user will be re-directed to the same page
// with the fallback language if the specified language doesn't exist.

// When [langFile()] is called and the language is verified as valid
// it is set to the app property ($app->lang).

// The other I18N function [textFile()] simply takes a full file path
// containing the text '{lang}' along with the selected language and then loads
// the file or if it doesn't exist, the matching file for the fallback language.
$file_path = $app->config['I18N_DIR'] . '/test-{lang}.txt';
$content = \FastSitePHP\Lang\I18N::textFile($file_path, $app->lang);

// Use [getUserDefaultLang()] to get the default language for the user based
// on the 'Accept-Language' Request Header and available languages for the site.
// This is useful to provide custom content for the user or to redirect to the
// user's language when they access the default URL.
// Requires config values I18N_DIR and I18N_FALLBACK_LANG.
$default_lang = \FastSitePHP\Lang\I18N::getUserDefaultLang();

Formatting Dates, Times, and Numbers

// FastSitePHP provides an easy to use Localization (l10n) API to allow date
// and number formatting with a user’s local language and regional settings.

// Create a new Lang L10N Object
$l10n = new \FastSitePHP\Lang\L10N();

// Settings can optionally be passed when the class is first created.
$locale = 'en-US';
$timezone = 'America/Los_Angeles';
$l10n = new \FastSitePHP\Lang\L10N($locale, $timezone);

// Use the [timezone()] function to get or set the timezone that will be used
// when formatting dates and times.
// If you have a site or application that has users in multiple timezones or
// countries an application design that works well is to save all dates and
// times in UTC and then format based on the users selected timezone.
// This example prints:
    UTC                 = 2030-01-01 00:00
    Asia/Tokyo          = 2030-01-01 09:00
    America/Los_Angeles = 2029-12-31 16:00
$date_time = '2030-01-01 00:00:00';
$timezones = ['UTC', 'Asia/Tokyo', 'America/Los_Angeles'];
foreach ($timezones as $timezone) {
    // Change the Timezone
    // Print the formated date and time
    echo $l10n->timezone();
    echo ' = ';
    echo $l10n->formatDateTime($date_time);
    echo '<br>';
echo '<br>';

// Change the Timezone back to UTC for the next examples

// The [$date_time] parameter for the functions [formatDateTime(), formatDate(),
// and formatTime()] is either a Unix Timestamp (int) or a string in format
$date_time = 1896181200;
$date_time = '2030-02-01 13:00:00';

// Print Date Time with different locales using [locale()] and
// [formatDateTime()] functions. This example prints:
    ko    = 2030. 2. 1. 오후 1:00
    bn    = ১/২/২০৩০ ১:০০ PM
    en-US = 2/1/2030, 1:00 PM
    de-CH = 01.02.2030, 13:00
    ar    = ‏١‏/٢‏/٢٠٣٠ ١:٠٠ م
$locales = ['ko-KR', 'bn-BD', 'en-US', 'de-CH', 'ar'];
foreach ($locales as $locale) {
    // Change the Locale
    // Print the formated date and time
    echo $l10n->locale();
    echo ' = ';
    echo $l10n->formatDateTime($date_time);
    echo '<br>';
echo '<br>';

// In addition to [formatDateTime()] functions [formatDate()] and
// [formatTime()] can be used to show only a date or time. Prints:
echo $l10n->formatDate($date_time);
echo '<br>';
echo $l10n->formatTime($date_time);
echo '<br>';
echo '<br>';

// Print a formatted Number with different locales using [locale()] and
// [formatNumber()] functions. Decimal places are optional and default
// to 0. This example prints:
    en-US =  1,234,567,890.12345
    en-IN = 1,23,45,67,890.12345
    fr    =  1 234 567 890,12345
    fa    =  ۱٬۲۳۴٬۵۶۷٬۸۹۰٫۱۲۳۴۵
$number = 1234567890.12345;
$decimals = 5;
$locales = ['en-US', 'en-IN', 'fr', 'fa'];
foreach ($locales as $locale) {
    // [locale()] is a chainable getter and setter function
    // so it can be set and read from the same line.
    echo $l10n->locale($locale)->locale();
    echo ' = ';
    echo $l10n->formatNumber($number, $decimals);
    echo '<br>';

// Get supported Locales, Languages, and Timezones
$locales    = $l10n->supportedLocales();
$langugages = $l10n->supportedLanguages();
$timezones  = $l10n->supportedTimezones();

Starter Site Middleware

// The FastSitePHP Starter Site includes several examples pages and provides
// a basic directory/file structure. The site is designed to provide structure
// for basic content (JavaScript, CSS, etc) while remaining small in size so
// that it is easy to remove files you don’t need and customize it for your site.
//     https://github.com/fastsitephp/starter-site
// Core Middleware classes are provided and can be modified for your site.
// To use them specify the 'Class.method' on route filter functions or
// when mounting additional files.

// Require a user to be logged in in order to use a page
$app->get('/secure-page', 'SecureController')->filter('Auth.hasAccess');

// Require an authenticated user and use CORS
    ->get('/api/:record_type', 'ApiController.getData')

// Only run a route from localhost
$app->get('/server-info', function() {

// Only load a file if running from localhost
$app->mount('/sysinfo/', 'routes-sysinfo.php', 'Env.isLocalhost');